Skip to main content

Full text of "Semicentennial publication"

See other formats



setts Agricultural College 

ieentennial, 1917 

M\& I'BHMVi 


of th( 

Massachusetts Agricultural College 

Semicentennial, 1917 

By L. B. Caswell 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 


issued in commemoration of the completion of the first fifty 
years of instruction at the College, 1867-1917. 

These volumes are dedicated to the men of the College who 
by wise and generous service have helped the institution to 
the position which it holds today. 

1. Brief history of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, 
by L. B. Caswell, 1917. 




Y)0. \ 





THE object of the American college in 1850 and previous was 
to prepare the student for one of the three learned profes- 
sions, so-called — law, medicine and the ministry. Teaching 
was not a profession. Very few chose it for their life work. College 
professors frequently, college presidents almost uniformly, were 
clergymen who from choice or necessity had left the pulpit for the 
college chair. Other teachers had generally taken up the work for 
bread-and-butter reasons, or en route to something else. Normal 
schools in Massachusetts had been established by Horace Mann 
only ten years before. Engineering was not regarded as a learned 
profession, neither was journalism, literature, music, nor agriculture. 
The Rensselaer Polytechnic School of Troy, N. Y., had been opened 
in 1824, and another engineering school in connection with Union 
College was opened about 1850, as was also a school of agriculture 
in Michigan in the same year. The farmers looked upon "book 
lamin," as far as agriculture was concerned, with good-humored 
contempt, and not without some justification, since the agricultural 
books and papers of that day were largely the work of academicians 
without practical experience. Everything in the educational world 
tended to draw the young people away from the farm instead of 
helping them to remain upon it. 

It was not until 1848 that Massachusetts as a state recognized 
a movement looking toward scientific instruction along agricultural 
lines. The incorporation that year by the General Court of the 
"Massachusetts Agricultural Institute,' ' a private institution, was 
a preliminary step looking toward the establishment by the state 
of an agricultural college. The "Institute" was never founded, but 
seed had been sown that in time was to yield a generous harvest. 


It was while the education of the country was in this condition 
that Hon. Marshall P. Wilder delivered an address on "Agricultural 
Education" before the Norfolk Agricultural Society, in September, 
1849. The suggestions contained in this address were received with 
such favor that in 1850 a bill was introduced in the General Court 
providing for the establishment of an Agricultural College and 
experiment farm. This bill passed the senate without a dissenting 
vote, but was rejected by the house. The next step taken was the 
appointment by the governor of a board of commissioners whose 
duty it was to report to the General Court at its next session upon 
the expediency of establishing agricultural schools or colleges. The 
act providing for this commission was approved by Governor George 
N. Briggs, May 3, 1850, and on June 6 of the same year the following 
were appointed members of the commission: — Marshall P. Wilder 
of Dorchester, President Edward Hitchcock of Amherst College, 
Thomas E. Payson of Rowley, Samuel A. Eliot of Boston, and 
Ely Warren of Upton. This commission made its report to the 
Legislature in 1851. It embraced the investigations of Dr. Edward 
Hitchcock in regard to the agricultural schools and colleges of 
Europe and contained an account of more than three hundred and 
fifty of these institutions. 

Nothing further was done towards organizing a college of agri- 
culture till 1856. In that year several of the gentlemen who had 
been most active in the project for establishing a college, cooperated 
for the establishment of a school, and obtained an act of incorpora- 
tion under the title of the Massachusetts School of Agriculture. 
Of the persons named in this act, the name of Marshall P. Wilder 
, the list. 

In all great movements which call for a change in the existing 
condition of things, there is some one person who stands out more 
prominently than his fellow laborers; and certainly if any one 
;; entitled to be called the Father of the Massachusetts 
that honor should rest upon the Hon. Marshall 
P. Wilder, who from the time of his address before the Norfolk 
Agricultural Society in 1849, all through the investigations regard- 
ing agricultural education! the discussions upon the establishment 
of the O location, and the deep interest he manifested in 

the welfare of the students both in their studies and activities, 
showed himself to be the leading and moving spirit, spending time 


and money for the success of the college. Marshall Pickney Wilder 
was born September 22, 1798, in the Town of Rindge, New Hamp- 
shire. His father had removed to that place from the town of Ster- 
ling, Mass., in 1794, and had opened a store in company with a 
brother. Reared among the charms of rural life and scenery, where 
the grand old Monadnock looks down upon the farms of Southern 
New Hampshire, the son developed that strength and vigor of con- 
stitution, that taste and love for rural labors and the beautiful in 
Nature, which made the name of Marshall P. Wilder loved, honored 
and respected throughout the land. At the age of sixteen his father 
gave him the choice of going to college, becoming a merchant, or 
working upon the farm. He chose the latter and continued the work 
long enough to gain the firm health and constitution for which he was 
noted during a long life. But the business of the store increased and 
his services were needed there. He entered the business like a sailor 
before the mast, and earned promotion step by step until he became a 
partner in the concern and postmaster of the town. Having a taste 
for military tactics he joined the New Hampshire militia, and at the 
age of twenty-six became colonel of a regiment. In 1825, wishing a 
wider field of operations, he removed to Boston and became one of the 
most prominent and successful merchants of that city. But Col. 
Wilder had higher aspirations than to accumulate wealth : to amass a 
fortune was not the all-absorbing ambition of his mind. A wider field 
of usefulness and philanthropy opened before him, and though devot- 
ing a reasonable amount of time and attention to his business, all of 
his leisure was given to agricultural and horticultural pursuits, so 
that while cultivating his land and importing seeds, trees and plants 
from distant countries, he was doing all he could to instill into the 
public mind a taste and love for rural labors and to elevate the rank 
and position of those engaged in the honorable employments of the 
farm and garden. To no other one man are the horticultural and 
agricultural societies of New England and the United States more 
indebted than to him. It was acknowledged that the immense prog- 
ress in rural ornamentation around Boston, the increase of beautiful 
rural homes and gardens filled with fruits and flowers, was due in a 
great measure to his untiring labors. In 1855, at a great banquet held 
in Dorchester to which two thousand men and women sat down, 
there was a graceful arch decked with evergreens and flowers encir- 
cling the front of the platform, and bearing this inscription: 


President of the Day 

"Blessed is he that turneth the waste places into a garden, 
and maketh the wilderness to blossom as the rose. " 

In 1860 the charter of the Massachusetts School of Agriculture was 
transferred to several enterprising citizens of Springfield, who deter- 
mined to raise by subscription seventy-five thousand dollars for the 
opening of the school in that city, relying upon the Legislature for 
a further endowment. This project would probably have succeeded 
had not the call to arms for our Civil War absorbed public attention. 

In 1858 Hon. Justin S. Morrill, representative from Vermont, sub- 
mitted a bill to Congress donating a portion of the public lands for 
the endowment of a college in each state, to teach such branches of 
learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts. This 
bill, after prolonged discussion for two sessions, passed both houses of 
Congress but was vetoed by President James Buchanan. The 
measure was finally enacted July 2, 1862, and was approved by 
President Abraham Lincoln. This act gave to each state a quantity 
of land equal to thirty thousand acres for each senator and repre- 
sentative in Congress, based upon the apportionment under the census 
of 1860. As Massachusetts had twelve members in Congress at this 
time, her allotment was 360,000 acres of land. The Legislature of 
Massachusetts accepted this generous gift April 18, 1863, and after 
much discussion resolved to found one independent college for the 
special education of young men in scientific agriculture and horti- 
culture. To this institution was given the proceeds of the sale of one- 
tenth of the land scrip for the purchase of a farm, and as an endow- 
ment, two-thirds of the income of the fund obtained by the sale of the 
remaining nine-tenths. The other third of the income was granted 
to the Institute of Technology at Boston. 

A bill to incorporate the trustees of the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College was enacted April 29, 1863, and the original trustees selected 
wen hall P. Wilder of Dorchester, Charles G. Davis of Plym- 

outh, Nathan Durfee of Fall River, John Brooks of Princeton, 
Henry Colt < . Id, William S. Southworth of Lowell, Charles C. 

[ Medfield, Paoli Lathrop of South Hadley, Phineas Stedman 
AUea W. Dodge of Hamilton, George Marston of Barn- 
stable, William B. Wa;hburn of Greenfield, Henry L. Whiting of 


Tisbury, and John B. King of Nantucket. Governor John A. Andrew, 
Secretary Joseph White of the State Board of Education, and Secre- 
tary Charles L. Flint of the State Board of Agriculture were also 
members ex officio of the first board of trustees. On November 18, 
1863, the corporation organized with Governor John A. Andrew 
president, Allen W. Dodge vice-president, and Charles L. Flint 
secretary. The organization provided that the board should never 
number more than fourteen, and that the governor of the Common- 
wealth, the secretary of the State Board of Education, and the presi- 
dent of the college should be members ex officio. The trustees were 
empowered to elect a president and members of the faculty of the 
college, to determine their duties, salaries, etc. ; to purchase or erect 
buildings; to make rules for the government of the college ; to deter- 
mine the courses of instruction; and to confer degrees. The General 
Court might appoint overseers or visitors of the college. The trustees 
should determine the location of the college, should purchase or 
obtain by gift a tract of land containing at least one hundred acres 
for an experiment farm in connection therewith, and should make 
such provisions for manual labor on the farm by students as they 
deemed just and reasonable. On January 6, 1864, George Marston, 
William S. Southworth and Charles L. Flint submitted to the General 
Court the first report of the doings of the trustees. 

The matter of selecting and securing a suitable location was one of 
the most difficult problems with which the trustees had to contend. 
Upon this question there was a great diversity of opinion. Many of 
the towns in the state were anxious to secure the benefits that would 
arise from the location of the college within their limits, but few were 
ready to comply with the requirement of the General Court that 
seventy-five thousand dollars be raised and presented to the trustees 
before a location was granted. With this condition, only four towns 
— Northampton, Springfield, Lexington and Amherst — ever offered to 
comply. Northampton raised seventy-five thousand dollars by sub- 
scription; Springfield expected to receive that amount from one 
individual; Lexington relied on one person for fifty thousand dol- 
lars and expected to raise the balance by subscription. 

There were also strong influences brought to bear to unite the col- 
lege, as a department, with some higher institution of learning. All 
the other New England States with the exception of Maine, gave their 
money to other colleges: — Vermont, Rhode Island, Connecticut and 


New Hampshire giving their money to institutions already established. 
Governor John A. Andrew, when the matter of location was broached 
to him, recommended a union of the Agricultural College with 
Harvard University, stating what was very plausible indeed, that the 
Bussey farm which was left to Harvard College for the purpose of 
establishing an agricultural department, might have an agricultural 
college founded upon it. He urged this very forcibly upon the 

In one of the notable discussions regarding the college, Prof. Agassiz, 
who was a strong advocate for connecting the college with some higher 
institution of learning, assigned as one reason that the number of 
capable teachers was not adequate. As an example, he said: "The 
whole of Germany has not three persons equal to Liebig, and yet 
Germany has thirty-two universities. We have in the State of Massa- 
chusetts five colleges. Can you expect to have five persons equal to 
Liebig? " He was aptly replied to by Dr. George B. Loring, who said: 
"Heaven knows how many colleges there are in the United States, 
but there is but one Agassiz, and we did not raise him ourselves. M 

Another objector at the same discussion, said: "You cannot get 
teachers. If you have one hundred and fifty thousand dollars today 
to spend in the employment of the best teachers, you could not find 
teachers in this country who would fill that school. Our ablest men 
are located and fixed for life, and we have men that Nature does not 
duplicate oftener than once in a generation. " The prophecies of 
that gentleman were not well founded, for the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College had in the "Big Four"— President William S. Clark, 
.. Levi Stockbridge, Prof. Charles A. Goessmann, and Prof. Henry 
H. Goodell — that very kind of men for her first teachers, men whom 
it would seem were raised up for the special work of establishing the 
acbusetts Agricultural College. 

Amherst College and Williams College also petitioned the General 
irt that the agricultural college be located in connection with their 
institutions, but in spite of all these petitions and arguments, the 
llature remained firm and said decidedly that it would not con- 
nect the agricultural college with any other college. 

Tows of Amherst held a special town meeting January 25, 

if the town would vote money for an agricultural college. 

timent in favor of the college expressed 

from the Gist, and it was voted to raise fifty thousand dollars by 



taxation and twenty-five thousand dollars by subscription. After 
many meetings and complications regarding the raising of this money, 
the matter was finally settled, and May 25, 1864, the trustees voted 
to locate the college in Amherst. In June Governor Andrew and 
council, with the executive committee of the trustees, visited Am- 
herst to examine the location. On September 13, a hearing was given 
by the governor's council on the question of confirming or rejecting 
the action of the trustees in locating the college at Amherst. At this 
hearing the statement was made that many farmers in Western 
Massachusetts and officers of agricultural societies were opposed to 
the location, but the council sustained the trustees in their action, 
and the executive committee of the trustees was authorized October 
3, 1864, to take conveyances of the land under contract for the site 
of the college and farm. The tracts of land purchased contained 
310.55 acres, and on the several tracts were five sets of farm buildings 
of no great permanent value. The price paid was $34,999.50. Ad- 
joining the estate was a tract of about seventy-three acres which the 
trustees considered it advisable to control, and which Dr. Nathan 
Durfee of Fall River, treasurer of the corporation, took deeds of in 
his own name, advancing the money from his own private funds. 

We believe the general verdict today is that the trustees acted 
wisely in the location they selected for the college: situated in the 
most picturesque portion of the renowned Connecticut Valley — the 
garden spot of New England — with scenery unsurpassed in beauty 
and cultivation in this or any other country. Dunn Browne, an ardent 
lover of this section, in his book " Dunn Browne Abroad, " says: "It 
is just the most beautiful region in the whole world. Set in its frame 
of lovely hills and mountains, it is the finest picture ever painted. In 
its fresh spring morning, in its effulgent summer noontide, in its 
gorgeous autumnal hues, and in its silvery winter moonlight, it sur- 
passes all other most favored climes. " Stand upon the elevation 
above the plant houses, and as your eye takes in the scene unfolded 
before you on every side, the Holyoke Mountain range and Mt. 
Tom, Mt. Warner in the west, and Toby and Sugar Loaf to the north, 
with the beautiful Connecticut flowing through the wide expanse of 
fertile meadows — the most fertile lands of New England — you will 
exclaim, as many another one has, who has traveled in this and other 
lands, " There is nothing equal to it. " 

On November 29, 1864, Hon. Henry Flagg French was elected the 


first president of the Massachusetts Agricultural College. Judge 
French was born August 14, 1813, at Chester, N. H. He was gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth College, studied law at Harvard, and was admitted 
to the New Hampshire bar in Rockingham County when twenty-one 
years of age. He practiced his profession at Chester, Portsmouth and 
Exeter, N. H.; was County Solicitor and Bank Commissioner of 
Rockingham County for several years; and was Judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas of New Hampshire. He removed to Massachusetts 
in 1860, and was assistant District Attorney for Suffolk County from 
1862 to 1864. He was interested in agriculture all his life, and in 1857 
traveled in Europe for the purpose of studying drainage. He was the 
author of ' ' Farm Drainage ' ' published in 1859, which had much to do 
with the introduction of tile drainage into this country, and was also 
associate editor of "The New England Farmer. " He contributed 
much to "The Massachusetts Ploughman," "The Country Gentle- 
man," and other agricultural journals, and also contributed many 
valuable papers to the United States Department of Agriculture. On 
his removal to Massachusetts he located in Cambridge, but later 
made his home in Concord. When elected to the presidency of the 
Agricultural College, the affairs of the institution were hardly in con- 
dition to attract the services of such a distinguished man as Judge 
French, but his great interest in agricultural education and every- 
thing pertaining to agriculture led him to accept the position. 

The work now devolving on President French and the board of 
trustees required more than ordinary gpod sense and judgment in 
many ways. There were no examples or precedents by which they 
could be guided, and the planning of the organization, locating the 
buildings, and adopting courses of study were problems to be solved 
that would in a large degree affect the success or failure of the institu- 
tion. The building committee consisted of President French, Henry 
V. Hills, Hon. Wm. B. Washburn, Hon. Joseph White, treasurer of 
Williams College, and Prof. Henry L. Whiting of Marthas Vineyard. 
There was a difference of opinion among the trustees as to the location 
of the buildings, and the services of prominent architects and land- 
scape gardeners were secured to settle the controversy. It was at 
length dec ided to locate the buildings on the ridge running north and 
south near the center of the college grounds, where the present dormi- 
1 chapd are located. President French took an active part 
in the controversy, and his resignation, which was tendered and 



accepted on September 29, 1866, was largely due to the feeling that his 
wishes had not been as fully consulted in this matter as they should 
have been. 

After leaving the college, Judge French resumed the practice of 
law, and from 1876 to 1885 served as assistant secretary of the 
treasury at Washington, D. C, and often acted as secretary and sat 
as a member of the Cabinet. He died from an affection of the heart 
at Concord, Mass., November 29, 1885. 

On November 7, 1866, Prof. Paul Ansel Chadbourne of Williams 
College received the unanimous vote of the trustees for president of 
the Agricultural College. He accepted the position and entered upon 
the duties of his office December 1 of that year. President Chad- 
bourne was born at North Berwick, Me., October 21, 1823. He pre- 
pared for college at Phillips (Exeter) Academy, entered the sophomore 
class in Williams College in 1845, and was graduated in 1848, valedic- 
torian of his class. For four or five years he was a teacher in high 
schools and academies, and from 1853 until the time of his election as 
president of the Agricultural College, he was professor of chemistry, 
botany, and natural history at Williams College. He conducted 
scientific expeditions to Labrador and Newfoundland in 1855, to 
Florida in 1857, and to Greenland in 1861. He visited Sweden, Nor- 
way, Denmark, Greenland and Iceland in 1859, for the purpose of 
studying geysers and volcanoes. At about the same time that he 
received his call to the Agricultural College, he was offered the presi- 
dency of two other institutions — the State University of Wisconsin, 
and the newly organized Worcester College. His large experience and 
comprehensive views, together with his practical judgment and great 
energy, enabled him immediately upon his entrance into his difficult 
office to inspire confidence, complete a satisfactory plan of organiza- 
tion, and harmonize conflicting views respecting the location and 
style of buildings. He labored assiduously to organize the college, 
and contracted for the erection of three of the buildings. Owing to an 
alarming hemorrhage from the lungs, President Chadbourne was 
obliged to resign his office and remove to a more congenial clime, his 
resignation taking effect June 1, 1867. 

This vacancy was filled August 7 by the election of William S. 
Clark as president of the college. Thus the college had three presi- 
dents before it had any students. 



THE first member of the faculty was Levi Stockbridge, who was 
elected farm superintendent and instructor in agriculture in 
1S66; and at the meeting of the trustees on August 7, 1867, 
when William S. Clark was elected president, Ebenezer Snell was 
elected professor of mathematics, and Henry H. Goodell professor of 
modern languages. These four men composed the faculty of the col- 
lege the first year it was in actual operation. Early in 1867 President 
Chadbourne, William S. Clark and Levi Stockbridge met on the slop- 
ing hill south of the ravine, and decided on the location of the south 
dormitory, the chemical laboratory, and the south boarding house. 
It was voted to open the college for those who might wish to enter the 
freshman class, October 2, 1867, and it was only by the greatest effort 
that the buildings were completed and furniture procured, so that the 
term commenced on that date. 

The buildings that were erected when the first students appeared 
upon the college premises were: the south dormitory, a boarding 
house on the north side of the ravine, a Chemical laboratory, and the 
botanic museum near the present plant houses. The south dormitory 
a building one hundred by fifty feet, four stories in height, and 
contained twenty-three rooms intended to accommodate forty-six 
students, together with two recitation rooms, a reading room and 
library, and two large rooms occupied by the state cabinet of speci- 
mens of the natural history and geology of Massachusetts. These had 
loved to Amherst from the State House at Boston, and con- 
tail specimens collected by Dr. Hitchcock, as well as 
the valuable i ffl of birds and animals made by Secretary Flint. 
I laboratory, which presented a barn-like appearance and 
ich was used at first as a gymnasium, was fifty-seven by 
ories in height. The Durfee plant houses, 
I built in 1807, were an elegant group of glass buildings, which, 



filled with many rare and beautiful plants, formed the show feature of 
the college, through which the students were always glad to guide 
their friends. Dr. Nathan Durfee of Fall River was the generous 
donor of these buildings, while by the liberality of Messrs. L. M. and 
H. F. Hills of Amherst, a fund of ten thousand dollars was provided, 
the income of which was to be expended for the purchase of seeds, 
plants, etc., in this department. 

It was on October 1, 1867, that the first students presented them- 
selves to take examinations for admission to the college. Everything 
was in a crude and unfinished condition about the buildings, while 
the college farm, made up of six different estates, was intersected with 
old Virginia rail fences and hedgerows, and all around were old 
orchards of apple trees, and fields that had not been planted for a 
generation. The number of students steadily increased during the 
term, until at its close, December 17th, forty-seven had been admitted 
to the class. They had come from the farm and city, and from every 
station in life. It had been said by those who were opposed to the 
establishment of an agricultural college : first, that it would have no 
students; second, if it did have any, they would be infants; third, if 
it did have any and they were not infants, they would be boys who 
had never seen a cow, but had always drunk pump milk — a regular 
white-livered set of boys sent out into the country for their health. 
Instead of no students, there were ninety-six admitted upon written 
examination, in the first twelve months. These boys at the time of 
entrance averaged more than eighteen years of age, and seventy- 
four out of ninety-six understood farm labor and had worked upon a 
farm. Never did pioneer settlers, nor those engaged in any great work 
or cause, face greater difficulties and problems than did the professors 
of this new college and the Pioneer Class of 1871 in this great evolution 
or experiment in agricultural education. The students were there to 
be experimented on; the education of the farmer for the farm and 
agricultural pursuits had never been attempted in New England. 
Prejudice and opposition to the college prevailed in every quarter. 
Not only was the vocational education on trial, but the college, the 
professors and the students were all under fire. If this new education 
should prove a failure and the college not be a success, then the start in 
life of these students would be seriously affected. It was fortunate that 
the faith of the students was great, and that they became imbued with 
the enthusiasm and optimism of the faculty and trustees of that time. 



Members of the first class well remember the opening term at the 
college and their first meeting with Professor Stockbridge. At this 
meeting the class was divided into squads of six or seven with one of 
their number as captain, and was sent out upon the farm to dig up 
old apple trees, husk and sort corn, pick apples, dig ditches for drain- 
ing, fork over manure heaps, etc., while the professor, with his trousers 
tucked into his boots, superintended the work of the squads. Though 
the newspapers poked fun at this new kind of a professor and his 
students, who had been given the name of "potato freshmen" by the 
classical students at the college on the hill, yet the work of the pioneers 
went on, and all were happy. 

All students were required to labor upon the farm, without pay, two 
hours every other day, and those who wished, were paid for additional 
work at the rate of twelve and one-half cents per hour. Thirty-six 
members of the class voluntarily worked for wages during the first 
term, and the one who earned the most was the best scholar in the 
class, though it had been stated by opponents of the college that no 
Agricultural College in the world would be successful if manual labor 
on the part of the students was compulsory. 

The college was fortunate in having, at the start, such a man as 
Levi Stockbridge. Born in the historic town of Hadley, of the purest 
New England stock, he was a product of the Connecticut Valley and 
worthy of a place with the ' ' River Gods ' ' of that famed valley. One of 
a large family, it did not fall to his lot to receive a college education, 
but his ambition for an education was great and he availed himself of 
all the opportunities that came to him. H^Toved the farm, farm life, 
and the young manhood of the farm, and he saw, as but few did at that 
time, the great need of the education of the farmer. He had read the 
works of Liebig, the founder of agricultural chemistry, and the experi- 
ments of Lawes and Gilbert were known to him. As a young man he 
had kept in touch with the proceedings which led to the founding of 
the State Board of Agriculture of which he became one of the promi- 
nent members, and was also familiar with the discussions that finally 
resulted in the founding of the Agricultural College. The work he 
lertook when he left his Hadley farm to take charge of the college 
farm and the erection of the first buildings was of an unknown charac- 
ter. This was practically the first agricultural college to be started in 
this country. The field was absolutely new, and there was not a 
model to go by. When he undertook instruction in agriculture, there 



was not another chair of agriculture in this country, and there was no 
one to whom he could turn for advice. He had to blaze his way with- 
out books and without charts, into unknown fields of education. 

Professor Stockbridge came to his great work at the college when 
thirty-seven years of age, while he was in the prime of life, full of 
enthusiasm, healthful, courageous, and optimistic as to the future of 
the institution to which he was to devote his life work. His lectures 
on agriculture were interesting, clear, concise, and practical, and they 
were extremely popular with the students. His tact and judgment in 
dealing with young men was remarkable. He was thoroughly ac- 
quainted with all the needs and all the work of the college, and was 
President Clark's right-hand man, not only in the launching of this 
new enterprise, but during the absence of the president in Japan when 
he had full charge of the college. In the dark days of the institution 
when it was without friends and without funds to pay its current ex- 
penses, he raised the money at the local banks on his own notes, or on 
the college notes indorsed by himself, and proved himself indeed a 
present help in time of trouble. The formulas worked out by Professor 
Stockbridge and given to the public in 1876, revolutionized not only 
the common notion of fertilizers, but the entire fertilizer business 
of the country. The first money he received in royalties for the use 
of his name, was devoted to experimental work at Amherst, which 
practically laid the foundation for the first experiment station to be 
established in this country in connection with an agricultural college. 
It was also the fourth station to be incorporated in the United States, 
the first one being incorporated by Connecticut at New Haven in 
1877, the second a little later in 1877 by North Carolina, and the third 
by New Jersey in March, 1880. 

The Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment station was established 
in 1882 and located at Amherst, but had no organic connection with the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College, the act establishing it providing 
for its independent management and support. But to Johnson and 
Atwater of Connecticut, renowned as chemists, and to Stockbridge 
and Clark of Massachusetts, the wisest of practical educators, be- 
longs the credit of inaugurating this great movement. 

The great work of Levi Stockbridge, as farm superintendent, pro- 
fessor of agriculture, president and benefactor, is written all through 
the annals of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, and not only 
will his memory be preserved by that grand building, Stockbridge 



Hall, but it will live in the lives and characters of hundreds of students 
who will always remember him as dear old Professor Stockbridge, 
whom they all loved. 

Under the terms of the United States grant, the college was re- 
quired to furnish training in military tactics. To comply with this 
requirement was at first no easy matter. There was no drill hall, no 
military equipment, and no member of the faculty who had made a 
special study of military training. Fortunately the college had, in 
Professor Goodell, one whose knowledge of military affairs was gained 
by service in the Union armies, and to his other duties was added that 
of instructor in gymnastics and military tactics. Under his direction 
the students received such training as the resources of the institution 
would permit. In March, 1868, the General Court passed a resolve 
authorizing the governor to issue arms and equipment to the college, 
and during that month President Clark acknowledged the receipt of 
sixty Springfield rifles and equipment for the use of the students. It 
was not until the following year, 1869, that the first detail was made 
of an officer of the United States army to serve as military instructor, 
and at that time Major Henry E. Alvord was selected to serve in that 
capacity at the Massachusetts Agricultural College. He was the first 
army officer ever detailed to give military instruction at an agricultural 
college. Major Alvord was destined to play an important part, not 
only in the history of this college but in the agricultural education of 
the country. He was born in Greenfield, Mass., in 1841, studied at 
Norwich University, enlisted in the cavalry in 1862, and was given 
the rank of major for meritorious service. . After the war he served in 
Kansas, Texas and the Indian Territory J During this latter period 
of service he became greatly interested in agriculture, and wrote an 
extensive paper upon "American Beef for British Markets," for 
which he was awarded the grand medal of the Royal Agricultural 
Society of England. He served as military instructor at the Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College for three years, from 1869 to 1872, and 
at the close of his detail in 1872 resigned from the army. During his 
detail he took regular courses under Goessmann, Stockbridge and 
Clark, and during the rest of his life he took a strong personal interest 
in the affairs of the college, holding the position of Professor of Agri- 
culture during the years 1885 to 1887. Later he reorganized the 
Maryland Agricultural College, and was also connected with the 
agricultural colleges of Oklahoma and New Hampshire. At the time 



of his death, which occurred at the St. Louis Exposition in 1904, he 
was Chief of the Dairy Division of the United States Department of 
Agriculture. By his will he left four thousand dollars for the use of 
the Massachusetts Agricultural College, the income of which is to be 
used to aid in the support of any worthy student, either under- 
graduate or postgraduate, who specializes in dairy husbandry with 
the intention of becoming an investigator, teacher, or special prac- 

During the early history of the college it was indebted to Amherst 
College in many ways, for valuable assistance. Our first professor of 
mathematics was borrowed from that institution in the person of 
Ebenezer Snell. Professor Snell was a graduate of the first class of 
Amherst college in 1822. In 1825 he was called to a tutorship in the 
college, and in 1827 was made instructor in mathematics and natural 
philosophy, receiving the full professorship in 1834. One of his 
associates on the Amherst faculty said of him: "He was a man, who 
for exactness, clearness and methods in teaching, has had no equal in 
Amherst and no superior anywhere; and who as an experimental 
lecturer cannot be surpassed." Also by his mechanical genius he 
kept his cabinet abreast of the most costly apparatus of the richest 
colleges in the land. Others of the faculty of Amherst College to 
whom we are indebted are : Dr. Edward Hitchcock who gave a course 
of lectures on comparative anatomy; L. Clark Seelye who lectured 
on English literature; and Prof. Snell who lectured on physics. 
Later, Professors B. K. Emerson and John M. Tyler gave zoological 
instruction; Prof. John K. Richardson gave instruction in mathe- 
matics; and Prof. Elihu Root was instructor in rhetoric and elocu- 
tion. During the first term or two we received our religious instruc- 
tion from Amherst College, as far as the regular Sunday preaching 
services were concerned, and on Sunday forenoons the agricultural 
students could be seen leaving their dormitory and marching in a 
column, two by two, to the old Amherst College chapel, where they 
were ushered into the gallery. 

The first society to be started by the College students was the 
Washington Irving Literary Society, which was of great value to its 
members, and which had accumulated a library of two hundred and 
fifty volumes of standard works by 1870. 

The years 1868 and 1869 were busy times at the college, for accom- 
modations had to be provided for the classes that were to follow the 



first class. On May 1st, 1868, the Legislature voted to allow fifty 
thousand dollars for the erection of more buildings, and during the 
summer the north dormitory and north boarding house were built, 
and the botanical museum and Durfee plant house were completed. 
President Clark, ever on the alert to secure events that would bring 
people to the college and attract attention to the institution, procured 
a meeting of the New England Agricultural Society in May, for a 
trial of plows on the college farm. This was a successful affair, and in 
December the country meeting of the State Board of Agriculture was 
held at the college with a three days' session, the meetings being held 
in the laboratory building and in Palmer's Hall at Amherst. It was 
a proud occasion, not only for President Clark, as he welcomed the 
Board to the college now in successful operation, but for the Board of 
Agriculture that had done so much for a decade and a half towards 
the establishment of the college. At these meetings addresses were 
given by some of the most prominent agricultural speakers of this 
country and England. Among these were: James F. C. Hyde, Presi- 
dent of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society; Col. M. C. Weld of 

v York City; John Gamgee, Veterinary Surgeon and President of 
the Albert Veterinary College of London; William Clift, Esq., of the 
American Agriculturist of New York City; Prof. Louis Agassiz of 
Harvard University; X. A. Willard of Herkimer County, New York; 
Prof. Levi Stockbridge; and Dr. George B. Loring, the eloquent 
agricultural orator, whose subject was ''The Value of Agricultural 
Investigations, and the Ability of Massachusetts to Support the 
Agricultural College." / 

It was also in 1868 that Dr. Charles A. Goessmann, who was to be- 
come such a prominent factor in the history of the college, was elected 
professor of chemistry, and Samuel F. Miller of Chicago was elected 
profes or of mathematics, physics and civil engineering. The College 
Chr: ion was founded during the same year. On April 25, 

1800, the Legislature appropriated fifty thousand dollars for the 
fur*' ion of buildings and for other purposes. During the 

• "College Hall," now known as the chemistry building, was 

built. It is a wooden structure, sixty by ninety-seven feet, and 

rected wa occupied as follows: in the first story was 

forty feet, and four rooms occupied by students in 

I ry; in the second story was a hall for drawing, also 

don and lecture room by the professor of mathe- 



matics and engineering, a chemical lecture room, office, and the 
private laboratory and apparatus room of the professor of chemistry ; 
in the third story was the military drill hall and armory. The old 
chemical laboratory building was incorporated in this new edifice, 
and the total cost of the old and new parts was about thirty thousand 
dollars. Other buildings erected this year were a dwelling house for 
the farm superintendent costing four thousand dollars, and a barn 
costing nine thousand dollars. 

On June 20th of this year, the second national exhibition of agri- 
cultural machines, instituted by the New England Agricultural 
Society, opened at the college and continued four days, during which 
time twenty-five mowing machines, twelve horse rakes and other ma- 
chines were tested by competent committees. The occasion brought 
together a large number of inventors, manufacturers, and agents, as 
well as farmers from different parts of the country, and resulted in 
much good. It was at about this time that Hon. William Knowlton 
of Upton gave two thousand dollars for the purchase of the herbarium 
collected by W. W. Denslow. 

In the latter part of 1869, the first Index was published which 
stated that it was, "A pamphlet designed to represent the internal 
growth and status of the college," and which contained an account 
of the student body and the organizations they had founded, together 
with a list of the board of trustees and members of the faculty, in- 
cluding the lecturers in the various departments. The name of Rev. 
L. Clark Seelye appears as chaplain; John Dillon as farm superin- 
tendent; and John Griffin, gardener. In addition to the members 
of the Amherst College faculty, previously mentioned as among the 
lecturers, the following special lecturers were employed: Prof. 
James Law, V. S., on Diseases of Domestic Animals; Charles L. 
Flint, A. M., on Dairy Farming; Dr. Calvin Cutter on Hygiene; 
Hon. Joseph White, LL.D., on Civil Polity; Dr. Jabez Fisher on 
Market Gardening; Hon. Marshall P. Wilder on Horticulture; A. S. 
Packard, M.D., on Useful and Injurious Insects; and Dr. George B. 
Loring on Stock Farming. The students in the college at that time 
numbered one hundred and fourteen, divided as follows: Juniors, 
thirty; Sophomores, thirty-five; Freshmen, twenty-two, and 
Specials, twenty-seven. There were two literary societies, the Wash- 
ington Irving, and the Phoenicia, besides the College Christian Union 
which had been founded in 1868 through the influence of Prof. S. F. 



Miller. There were two fraternities, the D. G. K. and the Q. T. V.; 
and of musical organizations there were the College Choir, with John 
M. Lockey as leader and organist, and the Glee Club with Arthur 
D. Norcross leader. Athletics were represented by one organization, 
the Wilder Base Ball Association, which consisted of the Wilder Nine 
and the class nines of 71 and 72. The second issue of the Index in 
1870 by the Junior class, had a fourth class added, making the circle 
of college classes complete. Athletics were increased by a Boating 
Organization with a college navy and a college crew. On November 
5th the first regatta in which the Agricultural College students took 
part, was held on the Connecticut River near the Hatfield Ferry. 
This race was between the Juniors of Amherst College and the Agri- 
cultural College crew. It was a three mile race, and was won by the 
the Agricultural crew in nineteen minutes, fifty-nine seconds. The 
first prize consisted of six sets of gold oars and a silver cup. 

Prof. Samuel Fisher Miller died October 28, 1870, of a cancerous 
affection of the bowels. He was a native of Heath in Franklin County 
and graduated from Amherst College in the class of 1848. He decided 
to devote himself to civil engineering, and removed to the West where 
he was engaged as engineer in the survey and construction of various 
roads in Michigan, Wisconsin and Illinois, and he was also professor 
of mathematics in Chicago. In 1868, by the urgent solicitation of his 
college classmate, President Clark, he was induced to return to Massa- 
chusetts and assume the duties of professor in the Agricultural Col- 
lege. During the two years of his service at the college, he won the 
highest respect from all with whom he camfe in contact. As a teacher 
of mathematics he was a model of simplicity, clearness and practi- 
cality, and was deeply interested in the application of science to 
works of public utility. He surveyed the line of the Massachusetts 
Central Railroad from Belchertown to Northampton; assisted in 
locating and grading numerous walks and roads in Amherst ; prepared 
a plan for the introduction of water from Pelham; wrote a prize 
essay on the highways of the state and the best method of constructing 
and repairing them; and originated the idea of establishing true 
meridian linos in different parts of the Commonwealth, and requiring 
urveys to be made with reference to them. 

In the fall of 1870 a new member was added to the faculty, when 
Professor Henry W. Parker from Iowa College was elected pro- 
f< or of mental, moral and social science, and college preacher. The 



Index of 1870 said of him, ''We welcomed with joy the advent of our 
new Professor in Science, and chaplain whom we could call our own. " 
Professor Parker was a man of scholarly attainments and was a valu- 
able addition to the faculty. During this term Professor Martin H. 
Fiske was chosen as instructor in mathematics and civil engineering. 
Additional lecturers for 1871 were secured in George B. Emerson, 
LL.D., author of " Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts, " who lectured 
on Arboriculture ; Alonzo Bradley, Esq. , of Lee, president of the Massa- 
chusetts Beekeepers' Association, who lectured on Honey Bees 
and their Management, these being the first lectures or instruction on 
bees ever given at an American agricultural college; Marquis F. 
Dickinson, Jr., Esq., of Boston, on Rural Law; and Professor William 
R. Ware of Boston, on Architecture and its Application to Rural 




THE year 1871 was made memorable by the graduation from the 
college of its first class which has ever been known as the 
" Pioneer Class." On the opening of the college in October, 
1867, the class during the first term numbered forty-seven members, 
and on its graduation twenty-seven received diplomas. Sixty-four 
different persons had been connected with the class during the four 
years, and all of the twenty-seven who graduated were Massachusetts 
boys, with one exception. (Forty-nine years before, in August, 1822, 
Amherst College graduated its first class, numbering three members.) 
The commencement exercises of the Agricultural College were held 
July 17, 18 and 19, and were attended by many distinguished men 
not only from Massachusetts, but from other states. Among those 
in attendance were Governor Claflin with several members of his 
staff and council; Hon. Justin S. Morrill, Senator from Vermont and 
author of the bill under the provisions of which the college was 
established; Prof essor Louis Agassiz ; Hon. Marshall P. Wilder; and 
Dr. George B. Loring. The people of ^Amherst manifested great 
interest in the occasion, and many of the houses on the street leading 
north from the village to the college grounds were beautifully deco- 
rated during the daytime, and brilliantly illuminated in the evening. 
The first public exercises were held on Monday evening, July 17, 
consisting of prize speaking by the lower classes. On Tuesday after- 
noon the class day exercises were held on the campus, and in the even- 
ing Dr. George B. Loring delivered an address before the literary 
ieties of the college. This was followed by a torchlight parade of 
the students, headed by the Springfield Armory band followed by 
a long line of carriages and people, which proceeded from the village 
to the residence of President Clark where a reception was given to 
Governor Claflin. There was a fine display of fireworks on the 
president's grounds, all the college buildings were brilliantly illumi- 



nated, and at midnight an artillery salute was fired. On Wednesday 
morning the cadets were reviewed upon the campus by the governor. 
The graduation exercises of the class of 1871 were held in College Hall 
at Amherst College, which was crowded to the doors. The exercises 
included orations by members of the class, congratulatory remarks 
by Prof. Louis Agassiz, an address by Governor Claflin, and an 
historical address by Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, after which the degree 
of Bachelor of Science was conferred upon the members of the class, 
and the diplomas presented by President Clark. 

Probably the most exciting event in the early history of the college 
was the intercollegiate regatta of American colleges held on the 
Connecticut River at Ingleside, between Holyoke and Springfield, 
July 21, 1871. The race was rowed over a three mile course, and was 
participated in by Harvard University, Brown University, and the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College. The Agricultural College crew 
consisted of Fred C. Eldred (stroke), Fred M. Somers, Henry B. 
Simpson, Gideon H. Allen, Arthur D. Norcross, and George Leonard 
(bow). The smooth surface of the river was scarcely broken by a 
ripple, when a few minutes past seven P. M. the word was given. The 
college crew, with the outside position, had the poorest start of all, 
but quickly settled down to work and in two minutes had gained per- 
ceptibly and continued to do so, although the other crews rowed as if 
for dear life. On they went, the country boys every minute leaving 
their city rivals farther and farther behind. People on the shore 
fairly shrieked with excitement to see this extraordinary turn in 
affairs. Down by the Chicopee bridge great crowds were anxiously 
waiting for the arrival of the crews. As they came in sight, it was 
seen that the Agricultural College crew was in the lead and was easily 
keeping its rivals at a respectful distance. It won by a good distance 
— a dozen lengths at least — and the enthusiasm which greeted its 
entirely unlooked for success was intense. The time was remarkably 
good, sixteen minutes and forty-six and one-half seconds, — then the 
fastest time on record, — while Harvard came in second, in eighteen 
minutes and thirty seconds. This brilliant victory fairly startled 
the public and betting men especially were astonished to a great 
degree. This in some respects was the greatest event in the first 
four years of student life, for it caused the country to take notice 
that there was a Massachusetts Agricultural College and that it had 
a class of students who could compete successfully with students 



of older institutions of learning. It was also a fitting climax to the 
college life of the " Pioneer Class," and the ending of their gradua- 
tion exercises, for three of the class of 1871 were members of the 
victorious crew. 

On May 26, 1871, the Legislature voted fifty thousand dollars for 
the payment of debts of the college, and for current expenses added 
§141,535.35 to the perpetual fund of the college. 

In the fall of 1871 Selim H. Peabody was elected professor of mathe- 
matics, physics and civil engineering. He was born at Rockingham, 
Yt.. August 20, 1829, and graduated from the University of Vermont 
in 1852. After graduating he was principal of the High School of 
Burlington, Vt., for some time. He was preeminently an educator, 
and served as teacher, principal and superintendent of schools in 
Vermont, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and Illinois before he came to the 
Agricultural College. In 1874 Prof. Peabody resigned his position at 
the college, and in 1878 he was elected professor of mechanical engi- 
neering at the University of Illinois. In 1881 he became president of 
the university, and resigned in 1891 when he was made chief of the 
Department of Liberal Arts in the World's Columbian Exposition. 
He was engaged in similar positions at the expositions at Buffalo, 
Charleston and St. Louis, and was sent to the exposition in Paris in 
1889. While attending to the duties of his exposition work at St. 
Louis he passed away suddenly from apoplexy. 

In February, 1872, the college secured the services of one of the 
best known American scientists of his day, Henry James Clark, as 
professor of comparative anatomy and veterinary science. Prof. 
Clark was a native of Easton, Mass., a graduate of the University of 
New York in 1848, and of the Lawrence Scientific School, Cambridge, 
in 1854. He studied under Prof. Louis Agassiz, serving several years 
as his private assistant, and was spoken of by him as "the most ac- 
curate observer in the country." He served Harvard College as 
adjunct professor of zoology for five years; was appointed professor 
of natural history in the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania in 1867; 
and received the appointment of professor of natural history in 
Kentucky University in 1869, where he was serving when called to the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College in 1872. His service here was of 
short duration, less than a year and a half, when it was terminated 
July 1, 1873, by his death in his forty-eighth year. His death in the 



very prime of life was a great loss, not only to the college but to the 
scientific world. 

Prof. Noah Cressy, M. D., of Middletown, Conn., was elected to the 
vacant position in the faculty. He had held the position of veterinary 
pathologist of the Connecticut Board of Agriculture, and had the 
reputation of being a skillful practitioner of veterinary medicine. 

In 1872 Levi Stockbridge was elected full professor of agriculture, 
and Abner H. Merrill was detailed as professor of military science 
and tactics. 

The year 1873 was made notable by the establishment of several 
prizes, made possible by gifts from friends of the college. Hon. 
William Claflin donated to the college one thousand dollars for the 
endowment of prizes to be awarded each year to the two members of 
the graduating class who should pass the best oral and written ex- 
aminations in the theory and practice of agriculture. He called them 
the Grinnell prizes, in honor of George B. Grinnell, Esq., of New 
York. Isaac D. Farnsworth, Esq., donated fifteen hundred dollars to 
endow the Farnsworth rhetorical prizes; the Hills botanical prizes 
were founded by L. M. and H. F. Hills of Amherst; and the Peabody 
entomological prize was given by Prof. Selim H. Peabody. 

An extensive series of investigations was carried on during the 
spring of 1873 upon the circulation of sap in the sugar maple and 
other species of trees, the results of which were presented in a paper 
by President Wm. S. Clark before the country meeting of the State 
Board of Agriculture at Fitchburg in December of that year. This 
paper elicited from Prof. Agassiz the extraordinary statement that, 
" the production of this one paper was an ample return for all that had 
been expended on the college ;" while Dr. George B. Emerson, the 
celebrated author of the report on the " Trees and Shrubs of Massa- 
chusetts, " after fully endorsing the statement of Agassiz, added that 
"under the feeling which it produced in him, he would, if he had a 
hundred thousand dollars to give, send it all to the college at once. " 

It was in 1874 that the remarkable experiment was made with the 
squash in harness that attracted attention all over the country and 
led papers which did not believe in the college and were inclined to 
ridicule it, to designate it as the "Bull and Squash College. " The 
experiment was made to determine the expansive force of a growing 
plant, and the squash was taken as the best plant for the experiment. 
Never before had the development of a squash been observed so 



closely, or by so many people, — thousands of men, women and chil- 
dren from all quarters visiting it. Prof. H. W. Parker was moved to 
write a poem about it, while Prof. Julius H. Seelye declared that he 
positively stood in awe of it. The weight of the squash was forty- 
seven and a quarter pounds, and the weight of iron lifted by it in the 
course of its development was two and a half tons. 

The year 1874 was marked by increased activity at the college, and 
several important changes were made in the faculty. Prof. Peabody 
resigned and Prof. Wm. B. Graves of Marietta College, Ohio, was 
chosen as his successor. Samuel T. Maynard, a graduate of the col- 
lege in the class of 1872, was elected gardener and assistant professor 
of horticulture. At commencement this year a large number of 
graduates were in attendance, and an association was organized, to be 
known as the Associate Alumni of the Massachusetts Agricultural 

During the year 1875 the college trustees entered into an important 
agreement with the corporation of Boston University, whereby they 
agreed on behalf of the college that matriculants in the university 
desiring to pursue any regular or special course of instruction pre- 
sented at the Agricultural College, should be at liberty to do so on 
the same terms and conditions as other persons, and on completing 
the course to the satisfaction of the authorities of both institutions, 
should be entitled to the appropriate degree, either from the college 
or the university, or from both, as they might prefer. Under this 
agreement a student at the college might become a member of the 
university and receive its diploma in addition to that of the college, 
and many of the students have done this. During this year, C. A. L. 
Totten of the United States army succeeded A. H. Merrill as pro- 
fessor of military science and tactics; Prof. C. A. Goessmann made 
extensive investigations concerning the composition and manurial 
value of commercial fertilizers; and Prof. Charles Sargent of Boston 
donated to the college several thousand specimens of trees, shrubs 
and herbaceous plants. 

On April 20, 1870, Dr. Nathan Durfee of Fall River, treasurer of 
the college from its establishment and one of the most liberal of its 
benefactors, was removed by death. On May 20, 1876, President 
Clark left Amherst for Japan, where he had been summoned by the 
imperial government to assist in the organization of an agricultural 
college. In his absence the government of the college was left in the 



hands of Prof. Stockbridge. This year also, Noah Cressy resigned as 
professor of veterinary science, and by vote of the trustees, the date 
for holding commencement exercises was changed from July to June. 
Of the twenty-four members of the graduating class this year, twenty- 
one received the degree of Bachelor of Science from Boston Univer- 
sity. Lieutenant Totten instituted the practice, which has been 
continued since, of presenting military diplomas to the members of 
the graduating class, and also gave the first military prize. 

May 16, 1877, the Legislature passed a resolve allowing five thou- 
sand dollars for current expenses, one half to be used for payment of 
manual labor by the students. When the original plan for an agri- 
cultural college was outlined by President Hitchcock, he recommended 
that such of the students as desired to work upon the college farm, in 
excess of the amount required of each student, should receive suitable 
compensation. President Clark was an earnest advocate of the 
establishment of a labor fund, and it was doubtless due to his influence 
that the Legislature made this appropriation. In 1877 a new green- 
house was built with funds provided by Hon. William Knowlton, and 
Professor Stockbridge gave one thousand dollars to the college to be 
used for experimental purposes. 

During the year 1877 President Clark returned from Japan where 
he had organized the Sapporo Agricultural College, and had served as 
its first president for a year. He had taken with him to Japan, several 
of the graduates of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, and they 
were given prominent professorships in the new college. William 
Wheeler of the class of 1871 was professor of mathematics and civil 
engineering, and was also civil engineer to the Imperial Colonial 
Department of Japan. On the return of Clark to Amherst, Wheeler 
became acting president of the college for a year or so, and was then 
made president, which position he held until his return to this country 
in 1880. David Pearce Penhallow of the class of 1873 was the pro- 
fessor of botany and chemistry in the new college, and was acting 
president for a short time after Wheeler's departure from Japan. 
William Penn Brooks of the class of 1875, who was professor of agri- 
culture in the Sapporo College from 1877 to 1888, was also for a por- 
tion of the time professor of botany, and was acting president from 
1880 to 1883, and again in 1886. He resigned his position in Japan 
in October, 1888, to take the position of professor of agriculture in the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College, January 1, 1889. John C. Cutter 



of the class of 1872 went to Japan in 1878 and was professor of physi- 
ology and anatomy from 1878 to 1887, and also consulting physician 
to the Colonial Department. Horace E. Stockbridge was the pro- 
fessor of chemistry from 1885 to 1888, and Arthur A. Brigham of the 
class of 1878 followed Prof. Brooks as professor of agriculture, serving 
from 1889 to 1892. Cecil H. Peabody who was a member of the class 
of 1875 for three years also served the Sapporo College as professor 
of mathematics from 1879 to 1881. 

In 1878 the college received by bequest, one thousand dollars from 
Whiting Street for the establishment of a scholarship, and the trustees 
also offered one hundred and fifty free scholarships for students enter- 
ing the college that year. 

On May 1, 1879, President Clark resigned his office. Elected to 
the presidency in 1867, he had served the college faithfully and well 
for twelve years, giving it at all times the best fruits of his ripened 
intellect, and it was with genuine regret that the trustees accepted his 
resignation, a regret that was shared alike by members of the faculty, 
alumni and undergraduates of the college. William S. Clark, the 
head of the famous "Faculty of Four, " was a native of Ashfield, 
Franklin County, where he was born July 31, 1826. Like Levi Stock- 
bridge he Was a product of western Massachusetts and its institutions. 
In 1844 he graduated at Williston Seminary, Easthampton, and at 
once entered Amherst College from which he graduated with distinc- 
tion in 1848. He pursued his studies in Germany at Goettingen 
University, graduating with the degrees of A. M. and Ph. D. From 
1852 to 1867 he served Amherst College as professor of chemistry and 
botany, and when he was called to the presidency of this college in 
1867, he was, as scholar, teacher and public man, better fitted than 
almost any other man of his day, to inaugurate the beginning of a 
new departure in education in the state and nation. A man forty- 
two years of age when he commenced his work here, of fine presence, 
splendid mental and physical vigor, in the prime of life, and full of 
enthusiasm and push ; everything that he undertook was sure to go, 
and he had a way of getting there a little sooner than anybody else. 
He used to relate that as a boy he always made it a rule to run faster, 
jump farther and higher, fight harder, and swim more strongly than 
any of his companions, and his watchword and slogan " Do it" guided 
him to success in whatever he undertook. It was this persistency and 
enthusiasm that carried him through the Civil War where he served 



with distinction, and that placed this institution on a secure and en- 
during foundation. It carried him to the far-off East where his memory 
is firmly enshrined in the hearts of the Japanese people, who to this 
day hold his name in the highest esteem as that of one who conferred 
great benefits upon their country. His entire period of service under 
the Japanese government extended over less than a year, but during 
that time he laid the foundation of a most successful college of agri- 
culture which has since developed into a great university, the gradu- 
ates of which have won distinction in the domain of science, literature 
and public life. His enthusiasm was intense. The writer recalls the 
great race at Ingleside when our college crew won that memorable 
victory over Harvard and Brown. We were standing near President 
Clark on the Ingleside grounds and when the crews came in sight and 
it could be seen that the " Aggies' ' were well in the lead, President 
Clark threw his tall hat into the air and engaged in such shouting and 
jumping as was not equalled by any of the students, and when the 
victory was won, Clark came tearing into Amherst behind his team 
of beautiful high-steppers, hat off, and crying at the top of his voice 
"We've won! We've won!" This intense enthusiasm was carried 
into everything that he did for the college. His versatility was great. 
He investigated the chemical composition of meteorites, the lifting 
power of growing squashes, and the flow of sap. He was a teacher of 
rare power and influence. As a soldier he had few equals. He had 
great executive ability. He knew everybody and everybody knew 
him. He was a born leader, and had that rare gift of personal magne- 
tism that drew men to him and made them follow him. His recog- 
nized scholarship, his wide experience, and his genial nature all 
rendered him the ideal man for the position he held. 




WITH the year 1879, hard times and dark days came to the col- 
lege. For several years its current expenses had considerably 
exceeded its income, and it incurred a debt which grew larger 
and larger each year. On April 24th the Legislature passed an act 
granting thirty-two thousand dollars to the college to pay existing 
indebtedness, and at the same time made the trustees personally 
responsible for any debt thereafter incurred in excess of the income of 
the college. June 12th the trustees, owing to the diminished income, 
sold at auction all the blooded stock belonging to the college, except 
the Ayrshire herd. Current expenses were reduced ten thousand 
dollars a year; one professorship was abolished; the president's 
salary was withheld; and the salaries of the professors and treasurer 
were cut down. An attempt was now made, encouraged by Governor 
Talbot and recommended by Governor Long, to annex the Agri- 
cultural College to another college. 

A decade before there was a crisis in the affairs of the college, when 
an attempt was made to disown it, and a committee was appointed 
to devise a plan by which the college might without expense to the 
Commonwealth, be organized as an independent institution, and also 
to inquire whether the term of study of the college might not be 
reduced. Hon. Joseph White, Secretary of the State Board of Educa- 
tion, and Charles L. Flint, Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture, 
were chosen to make a careful investigation of the subject, and a 
report based upon their investigations was submitted to the Legis- 
lature in 1871 which was to the effect that it was not practicable to 
sever the connection between the college and the Commonwealth 
and withhold from it further aid, and also that any considerable 
reduction of the prescribed course of study would violate the terms 
of th< sional grant. In accordance with the recommendation 

this report, the Legislature passed resolves allowing the college 



money for the payment of its debts, and added quite a large amount 
to the perpetual fund of the college. Thus this movement, started 
to separate the college from the state and close the door to further 
state appropriations, resulted in binding the two more closely to- 

An act passed by the Legislature in 1879 constituted the governor 
and council a commission to examine the status of the institution with 
the intention of severing its connection with and releasing the state 
from its obligation and guarantees to the general government respect- 
ing the college. This committee submitted its report to the Legis- 
lature of 1880, practically recommending that the college with its real 
and personal estate and the trust funds received from the United 
States for its specific support, should be given to Amherst College, 
and that any further effort toward its maintenance by the state should 
be abandoned. This proposition, although strongly advocated by 
Governor Long, was so radical and so subversive of the integrity of 
the state, that it gained no favor at the hands of the public and no 
effort was made by the Legislature to accept this report. This at- 
tempt by those opposed to the college, to destroy its independence as 
an Agricultural College, seemed to attract to the college the sympathy 
and support of the agricultural community and the friends of agri- 
cultural education. 

In 1879 Charles L. Flint was elected president. He was the first 
secretary of the Board of Agriculture, holding that office nearly thirty 
years, and was elected secretary of the Board of Trustees of the Agri- 
cultural College in 1863, holding the position twenty-two years. The 
year he served as president of the college was the most stormy in its 
existence. He served without pay, and so great was his interest in the 
college that he gave one thousand dollars in the closing year of his life 
to the permanent library fund. He resigned his office March 24, 1880. 

There was no great decrease in the number of students in 1880, and 
more than the usual interest was manifested by them in their work. 
Prof. H. W. Parker resigned in 1879 and Samuel T. Maynard was 
elected full professor of botany and horticulture. In April, 1880, 
Levi Stockbridge was elected president of the college. He had been 
connected with it since 1866, before the admission of the first class, 
and was thoroughly acquainted with all the work and needs of the 
institution, and this, with his good judgment, made his services of 
great value at this time. 



On August 25, 1881, Prof. W. B. Graves resigned, and Charles L. 
Harrington was appointed professor of mathematics, physics and 
civil engineering. Lieutenant Victor H. Bridgman of the United 
States army was detailed as professor of military science. The college 
battalion attended the celebration of the anniversary of the settlement 
of Boston, September 17, and took part in the parade as a military 
organization, receiving great praise from the press and public for their 
fine appearance. This year the alumni were first represented on the 
Board of Trustees by the election of William Wheeler of the class of 
1871 . The class of 1882 erected a handsome fountain on the grass plot 
in front of South College at an expense of two hundred and fifty 
dollars. The college grounds were connected with the mains of the 
Amherst Water Company, a contract being made with the company 
for water supply at the rate of one hundred and fifty dollars a year. 

Levi Stockbridge resigned as president January 12, 1882, and Hon. 
Paul A. Chadbourne, whose health had so far improved that he had 
consented to take the presidency of the college once more, was elected 
the same month and assumed the duties of his office at once. During 
the period that Dr. Chadbourne had been connected with the institu- 
tion in 1866 and 1867, he had shown such ability and zeal in the 
management of its affairs that the friends of the college were more 
than pleased when he accepted the office for a second time. The year 
that followed was one of great prosperity for the college, and it was 
a great shock to all its friends when he died February 23, 1883. It 
was in 1882 under the presidency of Dr. Chadbourne that nine 
thousand dollars were appropriated for a drill hall and repairs, and 
May 12th of the same year an act was passed establishing the Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural Experiment Station. 

In January, 1883, the Durfee plant house was destroyed by fire. 

On the death of President Chadbourne, Prof. Henry H. Goodell 
was chosen acting president of the college, remaining in charge until 
September, when James C. Greenough, who had been elected presi- 
dent July 5th, assumed the duties of his office. Mr. Greenough who 
principal of the Rhode Island Normal School, had not consented 
to become a candidate, but was elected by a unanimous vote of the 

James Carruthers Greenough, seventh president of the college, was 
born in Wendell, Mass., August 15, 1829. He was a graduate of 
Willi in 1800 and received the degree of A. M. from that 


Henby Flagg French. 1864-1866. 

Paul Ansel Chadbourne. 1866-'67. 1882-'83 

. •^Silltl';'"" 

1 '-'. 


-.*?*& ^-f-v V ' )) 

w % 

-V ' " 


f^-s4:<^&# £* ' 




William Smith Clark. 1867-1879. Charles L. Flint. 1879-1880. 

PRESIDENTS. 1864-1880. 

Levi Stockbridge. 1880-1882. 

James Carruthers Greenough. 1883-1886. 

"V-'' '. 



''$VwF ™ K 




Hbnbi Hill Goodbll. L886-1905. 

Kknyon Leech BUTTBBSIBLD. 1906- 



college in 1873, and from Brown University in 1876. He was a teacher 
in public schools from 1849 to 1856, first assistant in the State Normal 
School at Westfield, Mass., for several years and principal of the 
Rhode Island State Normal School from 1871 to 1883. On July 5, 

1883, he was elected president of the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College, and assumed the duties of his office in September of that year. 
His administration of three years was one of progress : the standard 
of scholarship was raised; the course of study extended; new build- 
ings were erected ; and extensive repairs and improvements made in 
North College and on other buildings of the college. 

In 1883 the Legislature passed a resolve, "That there shall be paid 
annually from the treasury of the Commonwealth to the treasurer of 
the Massachusetts Agricultural College at Amherst, the sum of ten 
thousand dollars, to enable the trustees of said college to provide for 
the students of said institution the theoretical and practical education 
required by its charter and the law of the United States relating 
thereto.' ' Eighty free scholarships were also established, two for 
each senatorial district, the candidates to be recommended by the 
senator of the district. During the year the drill hall was completed; 
Manly Miles was elected professor of agriculture; and Leander 
Wetherell of Boston presented 1410 bound volumes and several 
hundred pamphlets to the library. 

May 8, 1884, the Legislature passed a resolve allowing thirty-six 
thousand dollars for the erection of a chapel and library building, for 
the completion of the president's house, and for repairs on the north 
dormitory. At this time they also limited the term of office of the 
trustees. This year Prof. A. B. Bassett, professor of mathematics, 
physics and civil engineering, resigned, and Clarence D. Warner was 
elected to fill the vacancy. Horace E. Stockbridge was also elected 
associate professor of chemistry. During the year the repairs on the 
north dormitory were made, and work on the construction of the new 
chapel building was begun, the corner stone being laid November 6, 

1884, with interesting exercises. Hon. J. S. Grinnell of Greenfield 
presided; President Greenough briefly outlined the reasons for 
erecting the building; Herbert Myrick of the class of 1882 spoke in 
behalf of the library committee of the alumni; Ex-president Stock- 
bridge spoke of the progress and aims of the college; Arthur A. 
Brigham of the class of '78 and S. C. Damon of the class of '82 also 
made addresses regarding the value and prospects of the college. 



0. B. Hadwen, Esq., of Worcester, of the building committee, gave 
an account of the plan of the building, and Hon. C. L. Flint, for a time 
president of the college, outlined its early history. Rev. Samuel 
Snelling, rector of Grace Church in Amherst, offered prayer, and the 
corner-stone was put in place by the presidents of the several classes 
then in college. The building was constructed of granite from the 
quarry in Pelham owned by the college, and at the time of its erection 
was the finest building on the college grounds. 

On the 4th of February, 1885, the south dormitory was destroyed 
by fire. On June 11th of the same year the Legislature passed a 
resolve allowing forty-five thousand dollars for rebuilding the south 
dormitory, erecting a tower on the chapel building, and the purchase 
of scientific apparatus. By another resolve on the same date, six 
thousand dollars was appropriated for the Massachusetts Agricultural 
Experiment Station, and on June 19 an act was passed making the 
annual report of the college and the annual report of the experiment 
station public documents. The boarding house built in 1867 was 
remodeled, repaired and painted; the interior of the original chapel 
building was remodeled; and the south dormitory was rebuilt on a 
much larger scale, with accommodations for the agricultural depart- 
ment, at a cost of thirty-three thousand dollars. During the summer 
months the president's house was completed and considerable addi- 
tions were made to the library and to the scientific apparatus of the 
college. Prof. Horace E. Stockbridge, Ph. D., resigned in April to 
accept an important position in the Imperial College of Agriculture, 
Japan, and he was succeeded by Charles Wellington, Ph. D., as 
associate professor of chemistry. Lieutenant George E. Sage of the 
Fifth Artillery, U. S. A., was detailed as professor of military science 
and tactics. 

During President Greenough's administration, two ex-presidents 
of the college died: — Henry Flagg French, the first president, died at 
Concord, Mass., November 29, 1885; and William S. Clark died at 
Amherst, March 9, 1886. Colonel Clark was practically the first 
ident of the college, for Judge French did little more than take the 
initiatory steps, and President Chadbourne had hardly assumed the 
< rnment when the state of his health compelled him to 
md it was left to Colonel Clark to really organize and establish 
the new college, and for twelve years he stood at the helm and main- 
tained hi course de Spite the opposition he encountered on every side. 



A new prize was offered in 1886 for the first time, named the Henry- 
James Clark Natural History Prize, in memory of the late Henry 
James Clark, the eminent biologist, who was the first professor of 
natural history at the college. It was a prize of Thirty Dollars offered 
annually for excellence in human anatomy and physiology as ex- 
hibited in written examination, and awarded to the writer judged 
worthy of such distinction. The first time this prize was awarded in 
June, 1886, it was given to Tataro Mishima, of the class of 1888, a 
Japanese student from Tokio, Japan. 

President Greenough resigned at the close of the college year 1886- 
The college is indebted to him for his valuable services and oversight 
in the erection of the beautiful stone chapel and library building. 




AT the period of the college commencement in June, 1886, Henry 
H. Goodell was elected president to fill the vacancy caused by 
the resignation of President Greenough. President Goodell had 
been connected with the college from its beginning, was familiar with 
all the work of the college, and knew its needs. On his accession to 
the presidency, other important changes were made in the faculty. 
Rev. Charles S. Walker, Ph. D., was elected college pastor and pro- 
fessor of mental science and political economy. He was a graduate 
of Yale University, and received the degree of Ph. D., from Amherst 
College in 1885. Henry E. Alvord, the first military professor, re- 
turned to the college as professor of agriculture; and Charles H. 
Fernald was made professor of natural history. 

During the year 1886 the college lost two of its most devoted friends 
and officers in the death of Hon. William Knowlton, July 18, 1886, 
and Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, December 16, 1886. Hon. William 
Knowlton who had served on the board of trustees for fourteen years 
was a generous friend of the college. His purse and his hands were 
ever open, and again and again in the earlier days of the college he 
endorsed the notes of its treasurer and lent his name to keep its 
credit good. There was hardly a year that was not marked by his 
benefactions. Hon. Marshall P. Wilder was peculiarly identified with 
the college, for it is to him largely that Massachusetts owes its system 
of agricultural education. His name appears first in the act of incor- 
poration, and from that time to the day of his death, he never ceased 
active connection with the college. 

In 1886 William Wheeler, a graduate of the class of 1871, was 

appointed trustee, being the first alumnus to be appointed to that 

'ion. In that year also, President Henry H. Goodell, in his first 

annual report as president and the twenty-fourth report of the college, 

mentions a new department in the domain of natural history, the 



chair of which was filled by the election of Charles H. Fernald, Ph. D. 
The chair which he took was entitled, "Professor of Zoology and 
Lecturer on Veterinary Science. " Grouped under this were the sub- 
jects of human anatomy and physiology, entomology, comparative 
anatomy of domestic animals, and veterinary science, all of which 
subjects Professor Fernald handled with marked ability. 

From September 1, 1871 to 1886, he served as professor of natural 
history at the Maine State College, from which institution he received 
his doctor's degree. He also studied with Prof. Louis Agassiz in his 
famous school at Penikese Island. He had given special attention to 
entomology and had made important investigations in that line. His 
work was becoming known in the country, and other institutions were 
beginning to seek him, the Iowa Agricultural College having invited 
him to become its president. For some time he refused all offers, but 
in 1886 accepted the appointment of Professor of Zoology and Lec- 
turer on Veterinary Science at the Massachusetts Agricultural College. 
At that time the department of natural history was confined entirely 
to two or three rooms in South College, and Professor Fernald was in 
sole charge. There was but little material equipment, and there was 
no provision for laboratory work. 

In the summer of 1889 Professor Fernald went to Europe for further 
study in the museums, and while there was notified that the Gypsy 
Moth had been discovered in Massachusetts. He then devoted all 
the time possible to the study of this insect in the different countries 
visited. In the state work for the suppression of the moth he was 
given the charge of the scientific part of the work. He made extensive 
studies and published a number of valuable reports on Gypsy and 
Brown-tail Moths, and his advice was of great value in the fight which 
continued for the next ten years. 

As a result of the entomological work made possible by the es- 
tablishment of the Experiment Stations and the fight against the 
Gypsy Moth, the college work in entomology developed very rapidly. 
In 1893 the trustees made entomology one of the advanced courses 
leading to the degree of Master of Science. In 1894 the department 
of entomology began the rapid growth that still continues. In 1898 
the trustees authorized the conferring of the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy upon the satisfactory completion of three years of post- 
graduate work in botany, chemistry, and entomology, and in the sum- 
mer of 1899 established a separate professorship of entomology. To 



the new chair they called Dr. Henry T. Fernald, then of the Pennsyl- 
vania State College. Prof. Charles H. Fernald, although his work 
consisted mainly in the development of the postgraduate courses in 
entomology, retained the title of Professor of Zoology. Under the 
able guidance of these two men, father and son, the entomological 
courses attracted more students than the laboratory facilities could 
possibly accommodate, and dozens of applicants had to be turned 
away. The trustees in 1908 recognized the growing importance of the 
advanced work by establishing a Graduate School, of which Prof. 
Charles H. Fernald was made the director. 

In 1909 the Legislature granted eighty thousand dollars for a build- 
ing for the departments of entomology and zoology, to which amount 
fifteen thousand dollars was later added for furnishings. This build- 
ing, erected in 1910, was opened and dedicated on November 11th of 
that year, and contains an equipment for entomological study said to 
be unexcelled in the world. This splendid structure will stand as a 
memorial to the labors of Prof. Charles H. Fernald and Dr. Henry T. 
Fernald who have made the department of entomology in the Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College one which has attracted students from 
all the leading colleges of New England to its postgraduate courses. 
Dr. Fernald' s work as a teacher of entomology at the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College is known in every part of this country and in 
foreign lands, through the men whom he has been largely instru- 
mental in preparing for practical work in entomology, and who are 
now found in the colleges and Experiment Stations throughout the 
United States, and as government entomologists in foreign countries. 

On June 21, 1887, the twenty-fifth anniversary of the passage of the 
Morrill Land Grant Act was observed at the college, when addresses 
were delivered by Charles Kendall Adams, L.L.D., President of 
Cornell University; Hon. Justin S. Morrill, United States Senator 
from Vermont; and Hon. Charles G. Davis. 

On January 1, 1889, William P. Brooks was called from his position 

as ProCessor of Agriculture and Botany at the Imperial Agricultural 

of Japan at Sapporo, to take the chair of agriculture. The 

ie year the English department was greatly strengthened by the 

rintment of Prof. George F. Mills, a teacher of long experience and 

brilliant reputation, who had been for a number of years principal of 

1 4. the most flourishing schools in the state. An inscctary was built 

for the breeding of insects discovered on all useful plants, and for 



experiments with insecticides. The Legislature appropriated ten 
thousand dollars annually for four years for the endowment of ad- 
ditional professorships and for general expenses, one-half of this sum 
to be used as a labor fund. 

In 1890 under the provisions of the free scholarship act of 1883, 
sixty-two students were admitted to the college. Eighty-nine students 
availed themselves of the benefits of the labor fund. Two working 
biological laboratories were opened during the year in charge of 
Professors Fernald and Stone. Extensive improvements were made 
upon the farm, the labor being performed by students who were com- 
pensated for their work from the labor fund. 

James B. Paige was elected to the chair of veterinary science in 
1890. He graduated from the Agricultural College in the class of 
1882. He was a graduate of the Montreal Veterinary College in 1888, 
and became professor of veterinary science at the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College in 1890, and has served faithfully in that depart- 
ment ever since, doing all in his power to improve the veterinary de- 
partment as well as the college. It was owing largely to the untiring 
efforts of Professor Paige that the fine veterinary laboratory and 
stable hospital which were erected in 1898 were obtained. These are 
located south of the drill hall on the west side of the campus, and were 
erected during the fall of 1898 and the summer of 1899. They cost 
twenty-five thousand dollars, and are said to be the most complete of 
any in this country or Canada. 

On April 30, 1890, Senator Justin S. Morrill of Vermont introduced 
into the United States Senate, V A bill to establish an educational fund 
and apply the proceeds of the public lands, and the receipts from 
certain land grant railroad companies to the more complete endow- 
ment and support of colleges for the advancement of scientific and 
industrial education." This bill provided that there should be paid 
to each state and territory, for the more complete endowment and 
maintenance of the agricultural college, the sum of fifteen thousand 
dollars for the year ending June 30, 1890, and that one thousand dol- 
lars additional should be paid each year for ten years, and the annual 
amount thereafter should be twenty-five thousand dollars. This bill 
was passed by Congress, signed by President Harrison, and became 
a law August 30, 1890. 

In 1891 the college received a portion of the funds arising from the 
new national grant which was expended in adding to the equipment 



of the various departments. The Legislature passed a resolve con- 
tinuing the labor fund for a term of years, and also granted an ap- 
propriation for rebuilding the plant house and erecting a rose house. 
The standard of admission was raised and a higher grade of scholar- 
ship required. During the fall term President Goodell traveled in 
Europe for the benefit of his health, and in his absence the college 
was in charge of Prof. C. H. Fernald as acting president. On April 
oth the barn of the Hatch Experiment Station was burned. 

In 1890, tuberculosis having gained a foothold in the college herd, 
Dr. James B. Law of Cornell, the most noted veterinarian in the 
country, was employed to make an examination of the college herd 
and spent several days examining every animal in the most thorough 
manner then known to science. After his examination, Dr. Law 
recommended the slaughter of two animals only, and it was hoped 
that there would be no further serious trouble. This hope was not 
realized, and Professor Brooks in his farm report for 1892, in a letter 
addressed to the president, urged the abandonment of the old barn 
and the construction of a new one. 

The appropriation for the new barn and the moving of the farm 
house was made by the Legislature in 1893. Construction of the barn 
and stables was begun the same year and completed in the summer of 
1894, the alumni dinner at commencement of that year being held on 
the floor of the new barn, into which the new-made hay had just begun 
to be stored. The stables were not completed until later in the fall. 
The barn and stables were regarded as the most complete and con- 
venient, in many ways, of any in the country, at that time. They 
were completely destroyed by fire in November, 1905. The founda- 
tions were not materially damaged and the barn and stables were 
rebuilt in 1906. A second fire which occurred August 15, 1908, de- 
stroyed the storage barn, but did not damage the cow stable. The 
storage part of the barn was rebuilt in 1909. 

The clearing, drainage and bringing into cultivation of the entire 
level area of the original college estate, which was begun in 1888, was 
completed in 1893, and following this, extensive drainage operations 
were carried on which involved the laying of about seven miles of 
tiles. These improvements practically doubled the area of arable 
land The tract called the " Durfee Lot" lying across the Plainville 
road which was in forest, was cut in 1894 and 1895, and was gradually 
.red between that date and 1908, thus adding about forty acres 
to the arable land. 



In 1892, twenty-five years after the entrance of the first class, the 
college rolls bore the names of 190 students, and the college had 
received 879 men, of whom 361 had completed the course and received 
the degree of Bachelor of Science. One young woman entered the 
freshman class in 1892, but was compelled to leave, owing to lack of 
funds. This year the little stream flowing across the college grounds 
was dammed, making a pretty artificial pond which adds much to the 
beauty of the landscape. In the report for the year it was stated that 
since the establishment of the labor fund, over 150 young men had 
been aided, and twenty thousand dollars had been paid out for work 
in the direct line of their studies, which had contributed materially 
to the improvement of the college grounds. 

In the summer of 1892 Walter M. Dickinson came to the college as 
military instructor. He was an Amherst boy, having been born at 
the family homestead adjoining the college grounds. He entered the 
Agricultural College in the class of 1877 and remained nearly three 
years when he received an appointment to the West Point Military 
Academy. He prepared for the academy at the Agricultural College, 
entered West Point in the spring of 1876, and was graduated in 1880. 
He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Fourth Cavalry, and 
was later transferred to the Seventeenth Infantry, with which he was 
serving when he received his commission as military instructor at the 
college. He was successful in his work with the students and brought 
the military department of the college to a high degree of efficiency. 
His four years' detail expired in August, 1896, when he was ordered to 
report to his regiment at Columbus Barracks, Ohio, where he was 
located when the Spanish-American War begun. He went with his 
regiment to Cuba, and was participating in the battle of El Caney 
when he received a severe wound and died on the field of battle July 
2, 1898. His body was brought to this country and buried with 
simple services in the Arlington Cemetery at Washington, D. C, 
November 20, 1898. He had been advanced to the rank of captain 
by an act of Congress, April 26, and his commission as captain was 
signed and issued by President McKinley on July 14, 1898. 

On Wednesday, November 9, 1898, memorial services for Captain 
Dickinson were held in the chapel of the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College, when a large concourse of friends and relatives gathered to 
pay their last tribute to his memory. Religious exercises were con- 
ducted by Rev. Charles S. Walker, the college pastor, assisted by 



the Rev. Albert Bryant of Scituate, and a memorial address was de- 
livered by President Goodell, his life-long friend and teacher. The 
same day there was placed in the chapel walls a bronze tablet with 
suitable inscriptions, and the following quotation from an address 
delivered by Captain Dickinson at the memorial service for Governor 
Greenhalge, held at the college March 9, 1896: ''The day will surely 
come when one could wish no other epitaph than this 'He lived and 
died an American citizen.' " 

In 1893 the Legislature appropriated forty thousand dollars for the 
use of the college, of which nineteen thousand dollars was available 
that year. This sum was used for the erection of two model barns. 
This year the college made interesting exhibits at the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition held in Chicago. It is to the credit of the college that 
the design for the exhibit of the soils of the state, which was made 
by Professor Brooks, was adopted by the superintendent of the exhibi- 
tion of the agricultural Colleges for all the states of the Union. 

President Goodell in his annual report for 1893, said that the year 
which had just elapsed had been perhaps the most prosperous one 
in the history of the college. Changes in the curriculum were made 
which necessitated additional help, and five assistant professors were 
appointed in the departments of chemistry, agriculture, mathematics, 
English and botany. At the beginning of the college year in Septem- 
ber, the studies of the senior year were made elective, and a two-year 
course was established, twenty-three students entering its first class. 
In November, Sir Henry Gilbert delivered the Rothamsted American 
lectures at the college. 7 

In 1894 the Legislature passed a resolve appropriating seven 
thousand five hundred dollars for an electric lighting apparatus at the 
college. June 18th of this year the old college barn was burned, the 
fire supposed to be of incendiary origin. During the spring a course 
of lectures was delivered by Dr. B. E. Fernow, Chief of the Forestry 
Division at Washington, and the graduate course leading to the degree 
of Master of Science was opened with four members. R. W. Lyman, 
a graduate of the class of 1871, commenced giving a course of 
lecture, on Farm Law which were continued annually until 1910. 
Jn the annual report for 1894 is stated the fact that from New Jersey 
comefl the first application from a young lady to be enrolled as a 

In lS^o lattire appropriated four thousand eight hundred 



dollars for building an addition to the insectary, and erecting a gun 
shed. In 1896 the trustees decided to discontinue the two-year course 
which had not proved as successful as had been anticipated. It was 
found that some who would otherwise have entered for the four year 
course, found greater attractions in the shorter time, and instead of 
one class fairly strong in numbers, there were two classes numerically 
weak. There was also considerable friction between the members of 
the regular course and the " two-year men. " In place of the two-year 
course, a number of short winter courses were substituted. These 
short courses were under the charge of Professor Brooks, who, as chair- 
man of the committee, had full administrative charge, engaging the 
teachers, planning the course of study, making schedules, etc., from 
1897 to 1908, when they were transferred to the Extension Service 
with William D. Hurd as director. 

Tri-decennial Day was observed June 22, 1897, and was welcomed 
by the firing of thirty guns. At two o'clock in the afternoon, exercises 
were held in the chapel which was filled with a large audience. Mr. 
Charles L. Flint of the class of '81 presided, and the address of the day 
was given by President Atherton of the Pennsylvania State College, 
upon "The Present Status of Industrial Education. " An interesting 
feature of the exercises was the presentation of a loving cup to Presi- 
dent Goodell. At ten P. M. in the drill hall the grand " Komrners" 
took place. This was the first occasion of the kind when trustees, 
faculty, and every class of students, old and young were present. 
Barrett of '75 presided; Professor Stockbridge spoke with his old- 
time earnestness and wit; President Goodell gave a ringing speech; 
Dr. Lindsey of '83 spoke with enthusiasm on the College Ideal ; and 
Webb of 73 spoke on college reminiscences. At one A. M. the com- 
pany broke up with singing. 

The annual report of the president, dated January 1, 1898, stated 
that the faculty numbered eighteen active resident members, one 
professor emeritus and one non-resident lecturer. The chair of 
mathematics and civil engineering made vacant by the resignation of 
Prof. Leonard Metcalf , was filled by the election of John E. Ostrander, 
C. E., who had been professor of civil engineering and mechanic arts 
in the College of Agriculture of the University of Idaho. Through 
the generosity of Mr. George D. Pratt, the donor of Pratt Cottage at 
Amherst College, the students of the Agricultural College requiring 
care as the result of sickness or accident were given the advantages of 



the hospital on the payment of a fixed sum per diem, subject to the 
same rules and regulations as the students of Amherst College. The 
annual report for the college year of 1898 notes the death of Senator 
Justin S. Morrill of Vermont, and contains an expression of love and 
esteem for his character, and reverence for the wisdom and foresight 
that inaugurated a system of education so complete and far reaching 
in its results. 

During the year 1900 the college was called to mourn the death of 
two of its trustees and two of its students. John D. W. French, for 
ten years a trustee, died May 2, 1900. He was deeply interested in the 
agriculture and horticulture of his native state, and held many im- 
portant and prominent offices. He was a wise counsellor and true 
friend of the college. September 4 of the same year James S. Grinnell 
passed away. He was for twenty-two years a trustee of the college, 
and for many years the presiding officer of the board of trustees. He 
was widely known throughout the Commonwealth, was an accom- 
plished scholar, a polished gentleman, and was ever loyal to the college 
and its interests. The animal husbandry building dedicated March 
13, 1912, was named the Grinnell Arena in his honor, and at the dedi- 
cation exercises, a sketch of his life, prepared by Chief Justice Aiken 
of Greenfield was read. 

The college was called upon to prepare the agricultural and horti- 
cultural exhibit of Massachusetts for the Pan-American Exposition 
in 1901. 

In 1902, after years of arduous service, Prof. Samuel T. Maynard 
retired from the position of professor of horticulture, and was suc- 
ceeded by Frank A. Waugh, a graduate of tne Kansas Agricultural 
College, who had for fifteen years been connected with the agricultural 
colleges and experiment stations in Kansas, Oklahoma and Vermont. 
The dining hall, known as Draper Hall, was built in 1902 at an expense 
of about thirty-two thousand dollars, and was opened in February, 

The annual report for the college year 1904 contains a tribute to 
Charles Louis Flint of the class of '81, who had been a member of the 
board of trustees for a number of years, and was a son of Hon. Charles 
L. Flint, a former president of the college. He established and 
for several years maintained the "Flint Rhetorical Prizes," which 
mplished much for the English department. 

In January, 1905, when ill health compelled President Goodell 



to seek recovery in the South, the trustees appointed Prof. 
Wm. P. Brooks acting president of the college, which position 
he held until the election of President Butterfield. He labored 
faithfully and well amid trying circumstances and conditions. The 
freshman class this year was the largest enrolled up to that time, 
numbering eight-six. The total enrollment in the four-year course 
was two hundred and twenty-one students, including eight post- 
graduate students. 

An important event occurring during the time that Prof. Wm. P. 
Brooks was acting president was the " Better Farming Special* ' 
Train, the first of its kind in New England, which attracted much 
attention from the press. The idea originated with Herbert Myrick 
of the New England Homestead, a graduate of the college in the class 
of 1882. This train consisted of an engine, a baggage car and three 
passenger coaches, which were furnished entirely without charge for 
rolling stock, train crew or operation, by the Boston & Maine Rail- 
road. The material which was used in furnishing the train was jointly 
supplied by the agricultural colleges and experiment stations of New 
Hampshire, Vermont and Massachusetts, and the train passed over a 
considerable proportion of the lines of the Boston & Maine Railroad 
system in those states, beginning the trip in Massachusetts at Am- 
herst, April 3, 1906, under the direction of Professor Brooks. The 
exhibits were classified so those of each car illustrated some particular 
department of agriculture; one car being for Farm Crops and Fer- 
tilizers ; a second for Animal Husbandry and Dairying ; and the third 
for Horticulture and Insect Pests. The stops at stations averaged 
about fifty minutes each, and speakers who were experts on the dif- 
ferent subjects gave talks at each stopping place. It was estimated 
that fully 8,000 people in Massachusetts alone inspected the exhibits 
and listened to the talks. The progress of the train and its work were 
given wide publicity by the newspapers in both city and country, and 
the farmers of New England received much valuable information. 

Some one has said that, " in every college there is either the presence 
or the memory of some teacher whose personality is permanently 
stamped upon it. " This is especially true as regards President Good- 
ell, who for almost forty years gave himself with absolute devotion to 
the service of this institution. Henry Hill Goodell was born in Con- 
stantinople, May 20, 1839, a son of Rev. William Goodell, a pioneer 
missionary of the American Board in Turkey who made a brilliant 



record as translator of the scriptures into the Turkish and Armenian 
languages. When seventeen years of age, Henry was sent by his 
parents to this country for his education, arriving in New York, 
October 5, 1856, after a voyage of sixty-seven days. He prepared for 
college at Williston Seminary, Easthampton, Mass., and was gradu- 
ated from Amherst College in the class of 1862. At the time of his 
graduation the country was passing through dark days, and soon after 
leaving college he enlisted, August 16, in the 25th Regiment of 
Connecticut Volunteers. He entered the regiment as second lieu- 
tenant, was soon promoted to first lieutenant, and became aide-de- 
camp on the staff of Colonel Bissell, commanding the third brigade 
of the fourth division, and was everything good that could be desired 
in a soldier. 

After leaving the army he took a year to recuperate, and in the fall 
of 1864 accepted the position of teacher of modern languages and 
instructor in gymnastics at Williston Seminary, thus beginning his 
career as an educator which was terminated by his death forty-seven 
years later. Meanwhile President Clark's eye was upon him, and at 
an alumni dinner of the Agricultural College held in 1886, Goodell, 
while relating some reminiscences said: "It was in the summer of 
1867 that I received a brief note from Clark asking me to come to 
Amherst and see him. No building had as yet been erected, and the 
several farms of which the college property was composed had not yet 
been thrown into one. Leading me out into the fields, very near 
where South College now stands, he unfolded his plans, and turning 
to me with his hand on my shoulder said: 'Th^re is a great and glori- 
ous work to be done. Will you come and help V And what could I do 
with that eye looking straight into mine and that hand resting upon 
my shoulder, but say 'I will' ? M And thus his great work for this col- 
lege and agricultural education was started. Born of missionary 
parents in a foreign land, educated in a typical New England college 
of liberal arts, and with no agricultural training, one could scarcely 
have predicted for him such a career as he followed. But a coincidence 
of events brought him, youthful, ardent and resolute, face to face with 
the beginning of two great historic epochs worthy of his entire devo- 
tion — the Civil War and the establishment of the great Federal 
system of industrial education. He had met the first and performed 
his duty bravely and nobly, and now at the age of twenty-seven years, 
led by the magnetic power of President Clark, he decides to consecrate 



his life to the work of the establishment and advancement of agri- 
cultural education which has been the great educational event in 
America in the last half century. He accepts the position of professor 
of modern languages and English literature at the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College. 

To be in at the beginning of a new movement which proves success- 
ful is a matter of congratulation when success has been attained. But 
it requires more courage than men usually get credit for, to start with 
a movement that is in advance of the common thought, when there 
is a likelihood that one may be buried in the ruins of the undertaking. 
President Goodell was a part of the beginning of this college, and from 
the first recitation ever held in college to the time of his death, he was 
an important factor in the life of the college and its students. During 
the early years of the college, in addition to the duties of his regular 
professorship, he was called upon to fill almost every gap including 
looking after the students and keeping them straight. In addition to 
his teaching in the various departments he was secretary of the faculty 
four years; librarian from 1885 to 1899; acting president a portion of 
the year 1883 ; and was elected president in 1886 on the resignation of 
President Greenough. When he became president of the institution 
it stood sadly in need both of students and resources, while the prop- 
osition had been made to give the college away. The problems before 
him were many and difficult, involving first of all, public confidence 
in the college. He soon succeeded in securing needed recognition 
from the state; and during his administration the real estate of the 
college increased in value one-third, its equipment four fold, and its 
income three fold, and there was a large increase in the number of 
students. One of his greatest works for the college was in the college 
library, which will remain as his most conspicuous monument. The 
vast amount of labor that he put into the library resulted in the build- 
ing up of one of the best selected and arranged agricultural libraries 
in this country, surpassed only by the Library of the National Depart- 
ment at Washington. 

In the fall of 1884 he was elected to represent the Fourth Hampshire 
District in the General Court, where he was able to be of great service 
to the college. That session of the Legislature was really the turning 
point in the interests of the college. It was said by Hon. Wm. R. Ses- 
sions who was then senator and was for many years Secretary of the 
Board of Agriculture and a trustee of the college: "I am convinced 



that the favorable change in the temper of the Massachusetts legis- 
lature towards the college, which set in at that time and has continued 
ever since, w r as very largely due to President Goodell's influence on 
the representative men from all over the state with whom he was 
brought in contact during that season's session at the State House. " 

Another great work in which President Goodell was engaged was in 
connection with the American Association of Agricultural Colleges 
and Experiment Stations, with which work he was intimately con- 
nected from the beginning, and of which he was one of the most con- 
spicuous figures, having been the president of the association in 1891 
and a member of its executive committee from 1888 until 1902, the 
last eight years of which he was chairman. He was Director of the 
Hatch Experiment Station from its organization in 1888 to his death 
in 1905. At commencement in 1897 he was presented with a very 
large and beautiful loving cup, with the following inscription: "By 
the Alumni and Former Students of the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College, June 22, 1897, in Recognition of Thirty Years of Faithful 
Service to our Alma Mater, and in Loving Remembrance as a Friend 
and Teacher. " 

He had been in ill health for years, but his final and fatal attack was 
caused by a chill which prostrated him about the middle of December, 
1904. The trustees of the college at a meeting held January 2, 1905, 
voted to give him six months leave of absence with full pay. On 
March 6, 1905, in company with his wife he left Amherst for Florida. 
He did not seem to improve, and by the doctor's advice they started 
for home, but when within a few hours' sail of Boston Bay, he died on 
Sunday morning, April 23. Funeral services were conducted at the 
college chapel on the afternoon of April 27. While the remains were 
escorted to their last resting place in West Cemetery by the batallion 
of college cadets, the bells of his Alma Mater and the college of which 
he had been president so long, were tolled. The memory of President 
Goodell is enshrined in the hearts of his many friends, while his work 
as a brave soldier, an inspiring teacher, an able administrator, and a 
pioneer of a great work will place his name high on the annals of this 
college and the Town of Amherst. 

4 6 

George Leonard, Captain. 

Fred C. Eldred, Stroke 

Fred M. Somers, No. 2. 

Arthur D. Norcross, No 

Henry B. Simpson, No. 4. 

Gideon H. Allen, No. 6. 



RIVER, JULY 21, 1871. 

OLD SOUTH COLLEGE. 1867-1885. 




AT a meeting of the trustees of the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College held January 2, 1906, Kenyon L. Butterfield was 
elected to fill the vacancy in the presidency caused by the death 
of President Henry H. Goodell. He assumed the duties of his office 
the following July. 

President Butterfield was born in Michigan in 1868, and was thirty- 
eight years of age when he was called to become president of this 
college. He is descended from the best of New England stock, his 
ancestors being of the Massachusetts Bay colony. His grandfather 
was among the pioneers of Michigan and became a prominent cattle 
breeder of his time. He also was a member of the Michigan senate. 
His father was a leading farmer of Michigan, and was for many years 
a member and then Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture. He 
was also on the faculty of the Michigan Agricultural College, and 
secretary of the Michigan Agricultural Society. Kenyon L. Butter- 
field was brought up on a dairy farm, educated in the public schools 
of Michigan and graduated from the Michigan Agricultural College 
in 1891, with the degree of B. S. After graduating, he engaged in 
agricultural newspaper work, and in 1895 was made superintendent 
of the Farmers' Institutes of Michigan, where he met with great suc- 
cess. He was also field agent of the Michigan Agricultural College 
for several years, having charge of the extensive advertising of the 
college. In 1902 he received the degree of A. M. from the University 
of Michigan at Ann Arbor, working largely in sociology and econom- 
ics. In the autumn of 1902 he became instructor in rural sociology 
at the university, and in December of the same year was elected to 
the presidency of the Rhode Island College of Agriculture and Me- 
chanic Arts, where he served with marked ability and entire satis- 
faction until called to the presidency of the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College. He had written many articles on various phases of 



rural sociology for leading farm journals and magazines of the country, 
and had read a paper on "The Social Phase of Agricultural Education' ' 
at the annual convention of the Association of American Agricultural 
Colleges in Des Moines, Iowa, in 1904, and when he came to Amherst 
was regarded as one of the leaders in agricultural thought and educa- 
tion in the country. 

The first public inauguration of a president of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College was that of President Butterfield, which took 
place October 17, 1906, and was attended by leading educators from 
all over New England. The exercises opened with prayer by Rev. 
Henry Hague, a graduate of the college in the class of 1875. The 
address on behalf of the board of trustees was by Hon. Charles A. 
Gleason, vice-president of the board, and the presentation of the Char- 
ter, Seal and Keys of the college was by Marquis F. Dickinson, Esq., 
also one of the trustees. Mr. Dickinson gave a biographic resume of 
the administrations of the seven past presidents of the college, only 
one of whom was then living. He also treated of the enormous de- 
velopment of our agricultural resources, and of the growth of agri- 
cultural education in Massachusetts since 1850. He stated that one- 
seventh of the whole number of graduates of this college in the first 
twenty-two years were employed in Agricultural Colleges and experi- 
ment stations, and among them were three college presidents, eight 
professors of agriculture, five of horticulture and botany, three experi- 
ment station directors and several vice-directors. The Inaugural 
Address of President Butterfield had for its subject, "The Forward 
Movement in Agricultural Education. " The official delegates present 
at the inauguration were : President William E. Huntington of Boston 
University; President G. Stanley Hall of Clark University; President 
Henry Lefavour of Simmons College; President Charles S. Howe of 
the Case School of Applied Science; President Rufus W. Stimson of 
the Connecticut Agricultural College; President Howard Edwards of 
the Rhode Island College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts; Presi- 
dent George E. Fellows of the University of Maine; President Carroll 
\). Wright of Clark College; Prof. George D. Olds, Amherst College; 
Prof. Cornelia M. Clapp, Mt. Holyoke College; Prof. Alfred E. 
Burton, Mass. Institute of Technology; Prof. C. D. Smith, Michigan 
Agricultural College; Dr. Edward Hitchcock, Amherst College, the 
Tan leader in the physical training of college men. Former Presi- 
dent Jame i C. Greenough also was present. 

4 s 


President Butterfield succeeded to the presidency when the college 
was entering upon a period of rapid growth, and with greater op- 
portunities for efficient service in the cause of education and rural 
betterment than any of his predecessors. 

There were also several other important changes made in the faculty 
during the year 1906. On July 1, Dr. Charles S. Walker severed his 
connection with the college after a period of service extending over 
twenty years. Dr. Walker is remembered by the alumni chiefly as 
professor of political science and chaplain, although he also taught 
English, rhetoric, mental science and history. Prof. Richard S. Lull 
who had been connected with the college as Instructor and Assistant 
Professor of Zoology; curator of the Museum since June, 1895, and 
registrar in September of that year, resigned in June, 1906 to accept 
an important position in paleontology at Yale University and Clar- 
ence E. Gordon, a graduate of the College in 1901 was appointed in 
his place, Prof. P. B. Hasbrouck of the Department of Mathematics 
and Physics becoming registrar. 

Capt. George C. Martin, who relieved Major John Anderson in the 
military department, reported for duty at the opening of the fall 
semester, September 20, 1905. Captain Martin had a record of 
military service in the Spanish- American War in Cuba and the Philip- 
pines. Wilder Hall, the horticultural building was completed early in 
the winter, and occupied for the first time, January 16, 1906. During 
the time Professor Brooks was acting president, the Legislature made 
an appropriation of seventy-four thousand eight hundred dollars to 
be used for the erection and equipment of a building for the use of the 
botanical department. 

One of the interesting developments of the year 1906 was the re- 
markable progress made by the Young Men's Christian Association 
which was reorganized in February, and which in a few months had 
become a leading factor in the college, receiving the support of nearly 
every student. The speakers which the association procured, together 
with the cooperation of the students, aided in making this year prom- 
inent in Christian work at the college. At the alumni banquet, June 
20, the newly elected president, Kenyon L. Butterfield, made his first 
appearance before the alumni and was given a cordial welcome. 

The year 1907 at the college was made memorable in many ways. 
It was the fortieth anniversary of the founding of the college. Tues- 
day of commencement week had been set apart as Alumni Day, and 



more of the alumni returned for that occasion than at any previous 
commencement. The program of the day was filled with interesting 
events, the presentation of the portrait of President Goodell being the 
chief feature. The portrait, which was a gift from the alumni to the 
college, was the work of Edwin B. Child, and was true to life in every 
respect. The address of presentation was by Dr. Frederick Tucker- 
man of the class of 78, and the speech of acceptance in behalf of the 
trustees wa£ by Elmer D. Howe of Marlboro of the class of '81. The 
fortieth anniversary of the founding of the college was celebrated by a 
conference on Rural Progress held October 2, 3, 4 and 5, 1907, under 
the auspices of the college, and with the cooperation of several other 
organizations. The part that was of special interest to the alumni 
was the anniversary program of the first day. The exercises held in 
the college chapel in the forenoon of that day included an address on 
"The Beginnings of College History," by Hon. M. F. Dickinson, a 
member of the board of Trustees. Other addresses were "The Old 
Guard; " the famous "Faculty of Four, " and " Our Debt to Amherst 
College, " the latter address being given by William H. Bowker of the 
class of 71. Director William P. Brooks of the class of '75 spoke on 
"The Massachusetts Experiment Station. " 

At four o'clock in the afternoon occurred the dedication of Clark 
Hall, the beautiful new botanical building named in honor of President 
Clark. Prof. George E. Stone presided and introduced as the first 
speaker, David P. Penhallow, D. S., professor of botany at McGill 
University, Montreal, Canada, and a graduate of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College in the class of 73. His^subject was "William 
Smith Clark : His Place as a Scientist and His Relation to the Devel- 
opment of Scientific Agriculture." John M. Tyler, professor of 
biology at Amherst College, paid a glowing tribute to the memory of 
Colonel Clark. 

Another event during Anniversary Week which was of great in- 
terest to the alumni, was the dedication of the Trophy Room in North 
College on the afternoon of Friday, October 4, when the "Old Shell " 
in which the crew of 1871 won their great victory at Ingleside, was 
taken from the drill hall where it had lain for years, and was escorted 
by a long line of alumni and students, headed by the Clark cadet band, 
to the Trophy Room. After a presentation speech by Gideon H. 
Allen of the class of 71 and a member of the winning crew, the "Old 
Shell" was placed in its position suspended from the ceiling of the 



room. The five living members of the crew were present at the 
exercises, it being their first reunion since the victory of 1871. 

Other athletic trophies were presented by E. A. White of '95, and 
included several championship banners and the old chapel bell which 
had on so many occasions in the past rung out the college victories. 
On behalf of the College Senate and the Athletic Association, K. E. 
Gillett of the class of 1908 thanked the crew and other athletic in- 
terests for their gifts, and President Butterfield spoke briefly regard- 
ing the significance of the Trophy Room to the old men, as a center 
where they might return and renew old memories, and to the new men 
as an inspiration in athletics and other branches of college life. 

There were many changes in the faculty during the year 1907, the 
most notable of which was the resignation of Dr. Charles A. Goess- 
man as professor of chemistry, after a service of nearly forty years. 
The leadership of the department of general and agricultural chemis- 
try in the college was given to Dr. Charles Wellington of the class of 
1873, who had been associate professor of chemistry since 1885. Dur- 
ing the year a division of humanities was established, with Pro- 
fessor George F. Mills as professor of humanities and dean of the col- 
lege. This division also included the departments of language and 
literature, political science and the library. The horticultural depart- 
ment was reorganized and became the division of horticulture, with 
Professor Waugh as professor of general horticulture, and under his 
general supervision were placed the departments of floriculture, 
pomology and landscape gardening. The trustees, acting under the 
law creating a normal department at the college, organized a depart- 
ment of agricultural education and elected as the head of this new 
department, Prof. William R. Hart of Peru, Nebraska. This year 
also witnessed the creation of a separate office of treasurer of the col- 
lege, and Professor Mills' duties in that connection were assigned to 
F. C. Kenney, who had been for thirteen years cashier of Michigan 
Agricultural College. 

A new form of class contest was inaugurated this year in the tug- 
of-war across the college pond, in which the actors are the sophomore 
and freshman classes, and which has been made an interesting occasion 
of the early fall. 

During the year the college lost by death, Mr. James Draper of 
Worcester, a man whose life and services had been of unusual value 
to the college. He had been a member of the board of trustees for 



twenty years, and as chairman of the committee on new buildings and 
arrangement of grounds, he was active in securing for the college the 
new buildings which had been erected since 1900. His generous 
services to the college were often at much personal sacrifice, and the 
trustees have recognized his worth by giving the name of Draper Hall 
to the fine college dining hall, and ordering that a proper tablet and a 
suitable picture be placed in the hall, as a memorial of Mr. Draper. 

Another trustee who died during the year was Merritt I. Wheeler, 
who had been a member of the board since 1890, and who was an 
earnest worker for the welfare of the college. 

The Legislative appropriations for the year 1908 were more liberal 
than ever before, the special appropriations amounting to fifty-six 
thousand dollars and the total for all purposes to ninety-three thou- 
sand dollars. Among the most important of the special appropria- 
tions was that of thirty-four thousand dollars for the glass houses 
and instruction building adapted to give instruction in commercial 
floriculture and market gardening. By vote of the trustees this 
building was given the name of French Hall in honor of Henry F. 
French, the first president of the college, and the glass houses were 
called the new Durfee Range. Six thousand dollars was spent for 
improvements on North College, one of the principal ideas in the 
reconstruction of the old dormitory being to provide a place for the 
college men to get together and become acquainted. This resulted 
in the Social Union Room where students and faculty gather for 
social times. 

In the death of Mrs. Louisa S. Baker, March 9, 1908, the college 
lost a good friend, and many students a generous benefactor. When 
the Agricultural College was first established, a part of her father's 
farm was bought by the trustees. Living at the entrance of the college 
grounds, she watched every step in the growth of the institution and 
took a personal interest in teachers and students. She had no children 
of her own and was left a widow, so that she delighted in acting a 
mother's part towards boys who came to college determined to pay 
their own bills as far as possible. She opened her house to such, and 
always had one or more occupying rooms under her roof. In her will 
she provided that every year the income of six thousand dollars shall 
be ^iven by the majority vote of the faculty of the Agricultural 
College, to aid poor, industrious and deserving students to obtain an 
education at the colic 



This year Captain Martin purchased for the state, a strip of land 
to be used for a rifle range. This is situated about a mile and a quarter 
east of the college, and contains about twenty acres. On the night 
of August 14, 1908, the new college barn was destroyed by fire with a 
large amount of machinery and some live stock. This was probably 
one of the best barns in New England and involved a loss of thirty 
thousand dollars. 

There were ten new members of the faculty appointed this year, 
either to fill vacancies or to take positions that were created by votes 
of the trustees. In July, Miss Ella Frances Hall resigned as librarian. 
Miss Hall had been connected with the library since August, 1899, 
assisting President Goodell for some years, and after his death had 
charge of the library. The place thus made vacant was filled by the 
appointment of Mr. Charles R. Green, graduate of the Connecticut 
Agricultural College, employed four years on the Hartford Courant, 
and from 1901 until his appointment at the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College connected with the Connecticut State Library at 
Hartford. By vote of the trustees the division of agriculture was 
organized and Prof. James A. Foord was made acting head of the new 
division and professor of farm administration. Prof, Wm. P. Brooks 
who had served as professor of agriculture since 1889, then devoted 
practically all his time to his work as director of the Experiment 
Station, but retained his college lectureship in soil fertility. 

In 1909 the faculty, with the approval of the trustees, adopted new 
requirements for admission to the college, which for the first time in 
its history placed the college upon a strictly college and university 
basis of admission. A new position was created this year, and William 
D. Hurd was appointed Director of Short Courses, taking up his work 
September 1st. Prof. Hurd received the degree of Bachelor of Science 
from the Michigan Agricultural College in 1899, and the degree of 
Master of Agriculture from his Alma Mater in 1909. 

In this year also the department of forestry was created, but not 
until August, 1910, was a suitable man secured to take charge of the 
work, when Frank A. Moon, A. B., M. Fr., was elected associate pro- 
fessor of forestry, and began his duties September 1st. Dr. John C. 
Cutter, a graduate of the college in the class of 1872, who died in 
August, 1909, bequeathed one thousand dollars to the college to be 
invested by the trustees, the income to be used annually for the pur- 
chase of books on hygiene. This was the first gift of any great amount 



from an alumnus of the college. Dr. Cutter was a son of Dr. Calvin 
Cutter, who was the first lecturer on hygiene at the college. He 
graduated from Harvard Medical school four years after graduating 
from this institution, and went to the Sapporo Agricultural College in 
Japan, where he was professor of physiology and anatomy from 1878 
to 1887, and in addition to his college work was made physician to the 
Department of the Japanese government which controlled the prov- 
ince in which the Sapporo College is situated. 

In June, 1910, Prof. Charles H. Fernald resigned as director of the 
Graduate School, professor of zoology and entomologist of the Experi- 
ment Station. He was granted a pension from the Carnegie Founda- 
tion, and was retained by the college as honorary director of the Grad- 
uate School. He served the college twenty-four years, built up a strong 
department of zoology, and created the department of entomology, 
building it into one of the strongest departments of its kind in the 
United States. In January, 1910, Dr. Joseph B. Lindsey who had 
been connected with the Experiment Station much of the time since 
its organization, was made its vice-director. In 1911 he was 
given the headship of the department of general and agricultural 

In 1910 the title of Prof. Wm. D. Hurd was changed to that of 
Director of Extension Work, and Prof. James A. Foord was made 
permanent head of the division of agriculture. Because of illness, 
Dean George F. Mills was granted a leave of absence for the college 
year, and Dr. James B. Paige served as acting dean. The course of 
lectures in Rural Law was discontinued, and with it, the services of 
Judge Robert W. Lyman of Northampton. Dr. Burton N. Gates 
was chosen assistant professor of beekeeping, and expert in beekeep- 
ing for the Experiment Station. He was also made inspector of 
apiaries for the State Board of Agriculture, his duties beginning July 
1. Dr. Gates graduated from Clark College in 1905 and took his Ph. 
D, degree at Clark University in 1909. He served in the United 
States Bureau of Entomology as expert in apiculture from 1906 until 

On September 1st, 1910, Dr. Charles A. Goessman passed away. 
His connection with the college began in January, 1809, and for 
nearly forty to the work of research and instruction in 

mistry at the college powers of a high grade, until in 1907 lie was 



relieved of his active duties and made honorary director of the Experi- 
ment Station, and in June, 1908, was made honorary professor of 
chemistry. Both Dr. Goessmann and the college were honored in the 
fact that on dropping college work, he became the recipient of a pen- 
sion from the Carnegie foundation. 

Charles Anthony Goessmann was a native of Germany where he 
received the best education that could be given by his mother country, 
graduating with distinction in 1852 from the University of Goettingen, 
the home of great teachers and the Alma Mater of famous thinkers 
and scientists. The university honored him with the degree of Ph. D., 
and a position in the faculty for a number of years. Naumburg was 
his birthplace and Fritzlar his boyhood home, places of great natural 
beauty, while some of the greatest industries of the world are to be 
found in this region which has also been renowned for its chemists. 
About 1857 he came to this country and became chemist and manager 
of a Philadelphia sugar refinery, traveling extensively in Cuba and the 
South in the interests of the sugar industry. From 1861 to 1868 he 
was chemist for the Onondaga Salt Co., during that time investigating 
the salt resources of the United States and Canada, and he was also 
professor of chemistry at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 

It was while at Syracuse, N. Y., as chemist for the salt company 
that he was induced by his fellow student at Goettingen and life-long 
friend, William S. Clark, to come to Amherst to assist in laying the 
foundations of a humble institution, the necessity of which was being 
questioned, and in some quarters ridiculed. He came with Clark, 
Stockbridge and Goodell, and became one of that immortal " Faculty 
of Four." He was elected professor of chemistry in 1868, was ap- 
pointed chemist of the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture in 
1873, and along with Agassiz added strength and distinction to that 
body. In 1882 he was made the first director of the Massachusetts 
Experiment Station, one of the first founded in this country, and in 
which his work was of national reputation. 

At the alumni banquet in Draper Hall on June 17, 1907, the chief 
feature of the occasion was the recognition of Professor Goessmann' s 
birthday, and the close of his forty years' service as professor of 
chemistry and chemist of the Experiment Station. Dr. Charles Well- 
ington in behalf of the alumni, presented to Professor Goessmann a 
highly decorated, colored window, bearing symbolic designs and a 



suitable inscription, to be hung in his study. During the commence- 
ment of 1910, at the alumni dinner June 21, a fine portrait of Dr. 
Goessmann was presented to the college by the alumni, the presenta- 
tion address being given by Dr. Frederick Tuckerman of the class of 
1878, and the address of acceptance in behalf of the trustees, by Wm. 
H. Bowker of the class of 1871. 

It was not only to the students of the college that Professor Goess- 
mann gave instruction, but in his work and investigations he was 
teaching the farmers of the state, indeed his audience was the farmers 
of the whole nation. Thus he made a name for himself and for our 
college — a name of which we are all justly proud. 

In 1911 the trustees voted at their June meeting to group the 
various departments into divisions, each division to have a head who 
acts as administrative officer, with more or less control over general 
policies. The divisions as organized, with their heads, were: Agri- 
culture, James A. Foord; Horticulture, Frank A. Waugh; Science, 
James B. Paige; Humanities, Robert J. Sprague; Rural Social 
Science, Kenyon L. Butterfield. 

On September 1, of this year Edward M. Lewis was appointed 
assistant professor of English and assistant dean. Prof. Lewis grad- 
uated from Williams College in 1896. 

The annual report for the year 1912 states that six buildings were 
completed during the year. These buildings were the dairy building 
Flint Laboratory), completed and available for use September 1st, 
at a cost of seventy-five thousand dollars and named in honor of Hon. 
Charles L. Flint, fourth president of the college; the apiary completed 
in June at a cost of three thousand dollars, and four much needed 
buildings for the poultry department. The Legislature of 1912 appro- 
priated eighty thousand dollars for the addition to Draper Hall, 
r ers, repairs, improvements and equipment. At the annual com- 
mencement this year on June 19, the degree of Bachelor of Science 
was conferred on eighty-three men, thus making the class about a 
third larger than any class previously graduating. Hon. Charles W. 
Garfield of Grand Rapids, Michigan, delivered the commencement 
address on "The Business Conscience." 

In this year also, Charles E. Marshall was elected director of the 

dttate School and professor of microbiology. Dr. Marshall came 

from the Michigan Agricultural College where for many years he had 

. bead of the department of bacteriology. He was trained chiefly 



at the University of Michigan, from which he holds the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy. Dr. Marshall is one of the foremost microbi- 
ologists of the country, is an active leader in many scientific associa- 
tions, and is a recognized authority in the department of learning to 
which he gives his chief attention. William D. Clark was elected pro- 
fessor of forestry in place of Associate Professor Moon, resigned, and 
Ezra L. Morgan was appointed community field agent in the Exten- 
sion Service. 

In April, 1913, President Butterfield left the college on a year's 
leave of absence, to serve as a member of the United States Com- 
mission to investigate and study cooperative farm financing in Euro- 
pean countries. During his absence, Prof. Edward M . Lewis was acting 
president of the college. During the year, Prof. Edward A. White, 
head of the department of floriculture, resigned to accept a similar 
chair at Cornell University. Professor White came to this institution 
in 1907 and undertook the organization of a department of floriculture, 
which at the time of his resignation had become one of the strongest 
and best equipped departments in the college, and it is doubtful if 
any college in the country had a stronger department of floriculture. 

Among the more important appointments of the year were those of 
F. H. H. VanSuchtelen, Ph.D., assistant professor of microbiology, 
and Miss Laura Comstock, extension professor of home economics. 
Early in 1913, M. F. Dickinson, Esq., who had been a member of the 
Board of Trustees since 1905, resigned on account of ill health. He 
had rendered valuable service on the board, and took an exceptionally 
active interest in everything relating to the college. 

During the winter of 1913, just before the midyear examinations, 
the scarlet fever epidemic broke out at the college, and before it was 
checked, twenty-five of the students had the disease, of whom five 
died. The Kappa Gamma Phi house was converted into a hospital, 
the Kappa Sigma house into a detention home, and the Amherst 
College Infirmary was generously placed at the disposal of our college. 
This was the most serious epidemic in the history of the college. 
Although careful investigations were made, the definite cause of the 
outbreak has never been discovered. The expense incurred by the 
college at this time was about four thousand five hundred dollars. 

In October of this year the trustees authorized an annual lecture- 
ship on World Politics, the first lectureship of its kind established in 
this country. Mr. R. L. Bridgman of Boston was invited to deliver 



the first series which was given during the fall term. The addition 
to French Hall, for which an appropriation of thirty-five thousand 
dollars was granted, was commenced about the middle of July. An 
important event in the year as regards the library was the decision 
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington to place the college upon 
its " omnia list " to receive all of its publications without charge. The 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia has also taken the same 

Great interest was manifested in the intercollegiate rifle contests 
this year, the indoor team having won the Eastern League champion- 
ship, while on the outdoor range our college team won the college 
championship for the United States by the score of 825. In four 
years the Massachusetts Agricultural College had won the indoor 
championship three times and second place once, and had made a like 
record on the outdoor range. 

The year 1914 witnessed several important events and changes at 
the college. This year the Legislature granted an appropriation of 
two hundred ten thousand dollars for the agricultural building, the 
contract for which was let and work commenced during the summer. 
During the year the addition to French Hall was completed, provid- 
ing more than double the classroom capacity formerly available, and 
making it one of the most attractive buildings on the campus. Work 
on the Infirmary for which the Legislature of 1913 appropriated 
fifteen thousand dollars was not commenced until the fall of 1914. 
This consists of one building with wards for patients and rooms for 
the matron and nurses, with a second building designated as an " isola- 
tion ward." 

Prof. George Franklin Mills died October 27, 1914. Dean Mills had 

cd the college for nearly twenty-five years, having joined the 

faculty in 1890. For a large part of his career he was a teacher of 

English, for many years the hard working treasurer of the institution, 

and for seven years dean of the college. In June, 1914, he was made 

n emeritus. I [e was a faithful officer, an able instructor, and well 

of the title of "a Christian gentleman. " 

Tl a Loyal friend in the death of Major John Anderson, 

» died at hi in Belchertown, August 27, 1914. Major Andcr- 

r of military s< ience and tactics at this institu- 
tion from January, L 900, until September, L905, and won the love and 



The lectures on World Politics, established in the fall of 1913 were 
continued this year, when Dr. Edwin D. Mead of the World Peace 
Foundation visited the college and gave two lectures in October. The 
topic of the first was "The United States and the United World;" 
that of the second, " War and Peace in 1914. M 

An event of more than common interest was the visit in March of 
Dr. Shosuke Sato, the exchange lecturer from Japan to the United 
States, who delivered at the college three lectures on the industrial, 
economic and educational conditions of Japan. Dr. Sato's visit to 
this institution was of particular interest because of the fact that he 
was president of the University of Sapporo, Japan, which was founded 
by Col. Wm. S. Clark for twelve years president of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College. Dr. Sato was a student under both Professor 
Brooks and Mr. William Wheeler of the trustees, and he was given a 
cordial welcome by the faculty and students. 

Another event of more than local interest was the meeting at the 
college of the tenth annual convention of the eastern section of the 
Chinese Students' Alliance of America, from August 28 to September 
1, 1914. Over one hundred were in regular attendance at this con- 
ference. This meeting was also significant because in the summer of 
1905 there was held at this institution the first formal gathering of 
the Chinese students of America. 

At the annual commencement in June, 1915, for the first time in 
the history of the college, the number of graduates reached and ex- 
ceeded one hundred, the degree of Bachelor of Science being conferred 
on one hundred men and one woman, while five candidates received 
the degree of Master of Science, and the same number the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy. The alumni dinner was attended by 241 
alumni and officers of the college. This year also witnessed the 
largest entering class in the history of the college, there being 210, of 
which number, nine were young women. The total number of women 
students in regular attendance in 1915 was eighteen. 

In January, 1915, Captain George C. Martin, U. S. A., retired was 
relieved of his duties as commandant and professor of military science 
and tactics. Captain Martin was first detailed to the college in 
September, 1905. In 1909 when his first detail expired, he was, at the 
request of the president, detailed for another period of four years, and 
when his second term expired, was still further continued until 1915. 
For nearly ten years he was the head of the department of military 



science, the longest term that anyone ever served in this position in 
the history of the college. At the conclusion of his labors the trustees 
adopted resolutions expressing their appreciation of his faithful and 
efficient service. On the retirement of Captain Martin, the War 
Department detailed Lieutenant Henry W. Fleet as commandant. 

The Legislature of 1915 granted an appropriation of sixty-seven 
thousand five hundred dollars for a microbiology laboratory, and 
ten thousand dollars for an addition to the power plant. 

On October 29, 1915, Stockbridge Hall, the most important build- 
ing of the college, built at a cost of two hundred ten thousand dollars, 
was formally dedicated. It is probably the largest and most com- 
plete building of its kind in New England, and one of the best in the 
country. For nearly fifty years the college was without a Hall of 
Agriculture, but with this elegant structure, representing the most 
modern ideas in regard to classrooms, offices and laboratories, with 
an auditorium seating one thousand people, a beautiful organ, and all 
the equipment necessary for work in this department, surely the 
department of agriculture has come to the place it should occupy in 
this institution. This building will form the central figure of the pro- 
posed agricultural group, the dairy building known as Flint Labora- 
tory, built in 1911, flanking it on the west, while a proposed farm 
mechanics building is to occupy the position on the east. The exer- 
cises at the dedication were very interesting, and were attended by 
a large audience. The program opened with music by the college 
orchestra followed by prayer by Edward M. Lewis dean of the 
college. The addresses given were as follows:; "Levi Stockbridge 
and Charles L. Flint," by William H. Bowker, M. A. C, 71, chair- 
man of the building committee; "Agricultural Possibilities in New 
England," Joseph L. Hills, M. A. C, '81, dean, College of Agricul- 
ture, University of Vermont; "The Engineer in Agriculture," Wil- 
fred Wheeler, secretary of the State Board of Agriculture; and 
"The Stone which the Builders Rejected," President Kenyon L. 

On January 4, 1916, Mr. William H. Bowker, the senior member of 
the board of trustees in years of service, died in Boston. He was born 
July 3, I860, at Natick, Mass., but his boyhood was passed in Phillips- 
ton, Mass., from which town he entered the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College, October 2, 1807, as a member of the first or "pioneer" 
class, and was graduated July 19, 1871 . After about two years given 



to teaching and newspaper work, he founded the business that grew 
into the large and successful work of his life — the making and selling 
of fertilizers and allied products. From his student days he was an 
ardent friend of the college, and probably no member of the alumni 
was so well known, nor was a more effective worker and leader in 
behalf of the college. He became a member of the board of trustees 
in January, 1885, being the first one appointed by the governor of the 
commonwealth under legislation that sprung from his own early sug- 
gestion. For several years he was a member of the State Board of 
Agriculture representing the Worcester Northwest Agricultural 
Society which is the local society of his boyhood town, and he was a 
prominent speaker at agricultural meetings and institutes throughout 
the state. For nearly fifty years his voice was heard in defense of the 
college he loved, and on almost every anniversary occasion held at the 
college, at alumni dinners and the dedication of college buildings, he 
was one of the speakers, and his addresses were marked by great 
originality of ideas and independence of thought, which with his 
natural aptness of expression, made them most interesting. During 
his long term of service on the board of trustees, the longest of any 
present or former member, he had occasion to express his views on 
the important policies that had to do with the management of the 
college, and he was conspicuous in making that period the best in the 
history of the college that he loved so well. 

President Butterfield in his annual report which included the year 
1916 says: "The Massachusetts Agricultural College stands unique 
among the sisterhood of public institutions of higher learning estab- 
lished by the Morrill Act of 1862, in that it is not connected with a 
state university, and that it deals with agriculture alone. It is the 
only institution of collegiate grade in America which may be called 
strictly an agricultural college and nothing else. " Several changes in 
the board of trustees were made during 1916. At the close of his 
administration Governor Walsh appointed Mr. James F. Bacon of 
Boston to succeed Mr. Arthur G. Pollard of Lowell as trustee of the 
college. Soon after the death of Wm. H. Bowker, Governor McCall 
appointed Mr. Arthur G. Pollard of Lowell to fill the vacancy. Also, 
during the year, owing to the resignation of Dr. David Snedden as 
Commissioner of Education of Massachusetts, Dr. Payson Smith by 
virtue of his succession to Dr. Snedden, became a member of the Board 
of Trustees. There were also several changes in the faculty. Dr. 



George E. Stone retired from active service Sept. 30, 1916. Dr. 
Stone was a graduate of the college in the class of 1886, and received 
his degree of Ph.D., from Leipsic University, Germany, in 1892. He 
had been connected with the college and Experiment Station from 
1895, having been head of the department of botany and in charge of 
the research work in this subject. Dr. Stone was possessed of marked 
natural talent and ability as an observer and investigator. He was 
one of the most fruitful workers of the institution, and his scientific 
work was characterized by originality, ingenuity and enthusiasm. 
Prof. Sidney B. Haskell left the college the last of June to take up 
work as soil expert with the soil improvement committee of the 
National Fertilizer Association. He had been connected with the 
college since his graduation in 1904, first as assistant in the Experi- 
ment Station, later as instructor in agronomy, and for five years, head 
of the department of agronomy. During the summer, Prof. Orion 
A. Morton accepted a position as agent for the Massachusetts Board 
of Education, and he was succeeded by Mr. George L. Farley as super- 
visor of junior extension work. Mr. Ernest D. Waid resigned his 
position as assistant director of the Extension Service with which he 
had been connected since September, 1911. 

The total enrollment of all students in work of college grade for 1916 
was six hundred eighty. By invitation of the Board of Trustees, the 
graduate Summer School of Agriculture, conducted biennially by the 
Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment 
Stations, was held at the Massachusetts Agricultural College, with a 
total enrollment of one hundred eighty-four^ The most notable 
addition to the buildings of the institution for 7 1916 was the microbi- 
ological laboratory, the contract for which was let in the summer of 
1915, and which cost upwards of sixty-two thousand dollars. The 
building is situated on the road north of the Botanic Museum and is 
splendidly adapted to the teaching of, and research in, agricultural 
microbiology, and is probably one of the best arranged and equipped 
structures of its kind in the country. 

The Legislature of L916 appropriated thirty thousand dollars for 
the - of the Mount Toby tract for a Demonstration Forest. 

This tract co: 755 acres of timber land of which 721 acres are 

in Sunderland, and about 34 acres in Leverett. Every important 
forest type found from the Berkshire Mills to Cape Cod is found on 
this tract. Other appropriations granted that year were twenty 


CLARK HALL. 1907. 





thousand dollars for equipment and improvements, four thousand 
two hundred dollars for a retaining wall at the power plant, and 
twelve thousand dollars for the extension of the rural engineering 
shops. The Legislature of 1916 authorized a commission to investi- 
gate the work of the college and other agricultural State agencies, 
and Governor McCall appointed the following as members of the 
commission: Dr. L. Clark Seelye of Northampton, Mr. Warren C. 
Jewett of Worcester, and Mr. William L. Whiting of Holyoke; the 
two ex-officio members were Dr. Payson Smith, Commissioner of 
Education, and Mr. Charles E. Burbank, Supervisor of Administra- 
tion. The year was one of unusual activity in the library, the number 
of books added being 4,517, the largest annual increase in the history 
of the library which now has 52,928 volumes. 

With the beginning of the European War, the work of the College 
assumed a new importance not only in relation to furnishing men 
trained in military science but also in crop production. This function 
was at once recognized by the College which early in April pledged 
its fullest support to the Nation in the crisis. This was followed by 
increasing the amount of military training given at the College and 
by action excusing from further attendance during the year any 
students who desired to enlist for any form of mobilization work 
either military or agricultural, and granting them credit for this work 
under suitable restrictions. 

This opportunity the students quickly availed themselves of and 
the exodus began about the last of April and a month later ninety- 
seven per cent had entered upon some form of mobilization work. 
The members of the faculty also turned their attention to this service 
as rapidly as their duties permitted, and, by the end of May, forty- 
one were giving all their time to it and four had resigned to enter 
larger fields of activity in this line. Thirty-four bulletins and many 
other briefer publications giving information on agricultural topics 
of immediate importance had been issued by the middle of June and 
many others were in preparation to be published as the proper season 
arrived. Arrangements were also made to begin late in the fall in 
order that the services of as many of the students as possible should be 
available during the harvest season. 




NO history of the college would be complete without including 
an account of the Experiment Stations, so closely connected 
have they been. The history of the Experiment Station as a 
regularly organized institution begins in 1882, when the Legislature 
framed an act establishing the Massachusetts Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, but in a real sense, the Experiment Station in Amherst 
is as old as the college, for it was during the earliest years of the college 
that some of the most important experiments and investigations 
were made. President Clark's investigations into some of the phe- 
nomena of plant life, including his studies on the causes of the 
circulation of sap: Professor Stockbridge's experiments which led 
to the perfection of his system of special complete fertilizers : his ex- 
periments on the benefits of the "dust mulch, " the sources of soil 
moisture and the origin of dew: and Dr. Goessmann's experiments 
with the sugar beet and his work on commercial fertilizers, were all 
made during the early days of the college from 1870 to 1880. 
Among the men most influential in promoting the passage of the 
act establishing the Station was Dr. Goessmann, who was made 
the first Director, which office he continued to hold throughout the 
entire period of the independent existence of the Station, which 
continued until 1895. 

The staff which first assisted Dr. Goessmann in the early days of 
the Station was Manly Miles, Professor of Agriculture, and Professor 
S. T. Maynard of the Horticultural department, with Joseph L. Hill, 
Charles H. Preston, H. J. Wheeler, W. E. Stone and J. B. Lindsey. 

The act establishing the Station provided for its independent man- 
agement and support. Naturally, the Station was located in Amherst 
where so much experimental work had been done, and the needed 



land and buildings were secured by a lease from the college for a 
nominal consideration. 

On February 25, 1887, Congress passed an act to establish Experi- 
ment Stations in connection with the Agricultural Colleges which had 
been organized in the several states under the provisions of the Morrill 
land grant, and the sum of fifteen thousand dollars per annum was 
appropriated to each state from the United States treasury for the 
expenses of this Station. By an act approved April 20, 1887, Massa- 
chusetts accepted the provisions of this grant. At a meeting of the 
Agricultural College trustees held March 2, 1888, it was voted to 
establish a department to be called the Experiment Department of 
the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which name was subsequently 
changed to the Hatch Experiment Station of the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College. Henry H. Goodell was made director, which position 
he held until his death in 1905. Other officers chosen were: William 
P. Brooks, agriculturist; Samuel T. Maynard, horticulturist; Charles 
H. Fernald, entomologist; C. D. Warner, meteorologist; F.C.Paige, 
treasurer, and J. H. Demond, auditor. Work was begun at the Hatch 
Experiment Station in April, 1888. The name Hatch was given be- 
cause it was thought that it would be an appropriate act to honor 
Representative Hatch, the author of the bill under which the Stations 
were organized, by naming the Massachusetts Station after him; no 
other state had designated its Station " Hatch, " the uniform custom 
throughout the Union being to apply the name of the state to the 
Experiment Station. The old Massachusetts Agricultural Station was 
united with the Hatch Experiment Station in 1895, the combined 
Stations taking the name of Hatch Experiment Station, which was 
changed to the Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station in 
1907. Dr. Goessmann was made honorary director in 1906. When 
President Goodell became ill in 1905 William P. Brooks was 
appointed acting director, and was made director in 1906, which 
position he now holds. 

William Penn Brooks, who has been Professor of Agriculture or 
Director of the Experiment Station for nearly forty years, was born in 
South Scituate, Mass., Nov. 19, 1851. He was graduated from the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College with the class of 1875, was a 
graduate student of chemistry and botany in the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College for a year and a half, and received the degree of 
Ph. D., from Halle in 1897. In 1877, he went to Japan where he was 



professor of agriculture in the Imperial College of Japan from 1877 
to 1888 and acting president from 1880 to 1883 and from 1886 to 
1887. In 1888, he was decorated with the 4th Order of the Rising 
Sun. He was elected professor of agriculture at the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College and commenced his duties January 1, 1889, 
which position he held until 1908 and still retains the position of 
lecturer on agriculture. He was acting president from January, 1903, 
to April of the same year, and from January, 1905, to July, 1906. 
Since January, 1906, he has been director of the Experiment Station. 
He is a member of various agricultural organizations, has been a con- 
tributor to the transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society, and to the reports of the Secretary of the State Board of 
Agriculture, and is the author of several books on agriculture. He 
was made a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science in 1916. 

The Experiment Station is a department of the college and numbers 
on its working staff forty-six men, besides eight clerks and steno- 
graphers. Of these men, twenty-three give their entire attention 
to the Station and four are graduate assistants, while the others serve 
on the teaching force of the college as well. The Station makes use 
of certain portions of the college estate in its various lines of work. 
Its buildings have been provided, in most cases, by direct and special 
appropriations from the State, and it is supported by both State and 
National appropriations. 

The Experiment Station work is carried on in almost every building 
on the campus, and is not confined to those buildings which are ex- 
clusively station buildings. The principal station buildings are the 
Chemical Laboratory which was built in 1886 and has been remodeled 
at several different times, and the Administration building which was 
erected in 1890 as a laboratory of the old State Experiment Station. 
It is now used exclusively for the work of the director's office and the 
department of agriculture. The Hatch Experiment Station barn was 
burned April 5, 1891, and a new barn was immediately begun upon 
an enlarged plan designed by Prof. Brooks. The principal feature of 
this was the construction of two stables, identical in dimensions and 
general plan. Steam heat was introduced in one of these for the pur- 
pose of determining whether artificial warming of a cow stable is, from 
a financial point of view, advisable. Experiments conducted in these 
stables showed that the cows in the warm stable produced consider- 



able more milk than those in the one without artificial heat, but the 
per centage of fat was lower so that the butter production was not 
appreciably increased, and the conclusion was that heat in stables 
would not pay. 

The sum of thirty-five thousand dollars was received from the State 
the present year (1917), and the National appropriation was thirty 
thousand dollars. 

The work of the Station is of three distinct classes: control work, 
dissemination of information and investigation. The farmers owe to 
the Station: better knowledge of methods of feeding stock; more 
definite information as to the nature and special adaptation of feed 
stuffs; better knowledge of the methods of feeding the crops of the 
field, garden, and orchard; and more accurate information as to the 
nature of manure and fertilizers, and also, the introduction of two 
crops of national importance, namely Japanese Millet and the Medi- 
um Green Soy Bean, both of which Prof. Brooks brought from Japan 
and gave to the Station, when he took up work as its agriculturist. 

6 7 



Extension work is now recognized as of far-reaching importance, 
and one of the primary functions of the agricultural colleges of the 
country. It has been organized in all of these colleges. 

"Extension teaching in agriculture embraces those forms of in- 
struction in subjects having to do with improved methods of agri- 
cultural production, and with the general welfare of the rural popula- 
tion, that are offered to people not enrolled as resident pupils in 
educational institutions. " 

President Butterfield most truly pictures its benefits when he says: 
"The great work of extension teaching is to benefit men and women; 
and the benefit is not to be confined to the increase of the production 
of crops, nor the securing of larger profits from the business of farm- 
ing. They are legitimate and even fundamental, but our task is a far 
larger and more significant one than this. It is nothing less than the 
carrying on of a great campaign for rural progress which shall affect 
the intellectual culture, the social prerogatives, and the moral welfare 
of all individuals who live upon the land. " ~ 

The Summer School of Agriculture at the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College grew out of a legislative enactment providing for a 
normal department for the purpose of giving instruction to teachers 
desiring to teach elementary agriculture, to clergymen and other rural 
social workers. The first session was held in the summer of 1907, 
commencing July 8 and continuing four weeks. The courses offered 
were: plant structure and life, plant culture, animal life, teaching 
methods, lectures, etc. The total enrollment was two hundred 
twelve, practically all Massachusetts teachers. In 1908, a consider- 
ably larger number of courses was given, and the length of the session 
extended from four to six weeks with an attendance of one hundred 
and sixty-eight; and in 1909, the registration was one hundred and 
seventy-six. At the Summer School of 1910, there was a registration 



of two hundred and twenty-nine. In connection with the school that 
year, there was held a gathering which was unique in the history of agri- 
cultural progress, — a "Conference of Rural Social Workers" which con- 
tinued four days, from August 9-12 inclusive, and which was attended 
by three hundred and thirty-eight who registered during the sessions. 

The Summer Schools have been eminently successful and have 
attracted attention not only in this country, but in foreign lands. 
They are notable in that they were the first summer schools in which 
courses intended to cover the whole sphere of country life were offered, 
and instead of being, as originally intended, for teachers principally, 
all interested in the country life movement are received. A popular 
branch of the Extension Service is the ten weeks' winter course which 
was started in 1897, the courses in which are now given by twenty-eight 
members of the faculty. The attendance, from 1909 and 1910, was 
about sixty-four each year. William D. Hurd was appointed director 
of short courses in 1909, and the Legislature of that year appropriated 
seven thousand five hundred dollars for the development of short 
courses. During the nine months prior to October 1, 1910, twelve hun- 
dred persons came to the college and registered in the several courses 
offered by the Extension Department. Other short courses given at 
the college are: the Short Poultry Course, Farmers' Week, and the 
Bee Keepers' course. Among some of the features of Farmers' Week 
were the "Corn Show," "Fruit Show," and the "Dairy Show," all 
of which have created much interest throughout the State. The 1911 
Dairy Show had a larger number of entries of market milk than any 
show held in New England up to that time. Also, in 1911, a Bee 
Keepers' Convention was held, to which there came seventy-five 
from all parts of the State. The Polish Farmers' Days have had a 
large attendance of the Polish farmers of the Connecticut Valley, and 
have attracted much notice, not only from other colleges and organiza- 
tions, but from the press of Poland. 

The courses which are known as short courses are not strictly 
Extension Work, but were placed in the hands of Director Hurd for 
convenience of administration. The Extension Work done away from 
the college has become so extensive and embraces so many different 
agencies and organizations, with so many forms of instruction, that 
it will be impossible to mention all of them in the space at our disposal. 

The Extension Service as organized at the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College has, perhaps, the best system of extension teaching 
to be found in the country. This service, which is under the charge 



of William D. Hurd as director, with a staff of some twenty experts 
giving full time and some twenty-five experts giving part time, and 
a clerical staff of eleven, is disseminating information throughout the 
State on such topics as poultry husbandry, animal husbandry, home 
economics, farm accounting and management, fruit growing, local 
community organization, dairying, bee-keeping, marketing, library 
work, Junior Extension Club work, rural civic planning, and edu- 
cational exhibits at fairs. Other activities of the Extension Service 
are, correspondence courses, educational trains both steam and trolley, 
demonstration orchards and plots, lecture courses and demonstra- 
tion publications and information by correspondence, etc. 

The work accomplished through the boys' and girls' clubs has been 
phenomenal. In 1913, boys' and girls' corn and potato clubs had been 
organized in two hundred and eight towns with a total membership 
of over fifteen thousand. In 1914, the organizations were increased to 
two hundred and sixty-nine towns with a total membership of over 
forty-two thousand, and in 1917, in cooperation with other agencies, 
some seventy-five thousand boys and girls are organized into potato 
clubs, corn clubs, pig clubs, poultry clubs, canning clubs, etc. 

The Extension Work by means of demonstration farms, of which 
there are two in the State, viz., the Faunce farm in Sandwich on Cape 
Cod, and the Paige demonstration farm at Hardwick in Worcester 
County, is doing much for the farmers of those sections of the State, 
and the community development. 

The establishment of close cooperative relationship between the 
County Farm Bureaus and the Extension Service, through which 
funds appropriated by the Smith-Lever Act are made available to the 
Bureaus, has been one of the notable advances in the work. For the 
support of all this work, the State of Massachusetts makes an annual 
appropriation of fifty thousand dollars. In May, 1914, Congress 
passed the Smith-Lever Bill giving to the State an initial appropria- 
tion of ten thousand dollars for cooperative demonstration work in 
agriculture and home economics, for the year beginning July 1, 1914, 
and additional funds based on the proportion which the rural popu- 
lation of Massachusetts bears to the total rural population of the 
United States for a succeeding period of nine years. The total amount 
which Massachusetts will receive at the end of ten years will be thirty 
thousand dollars. Certain other funds assigned to the State are also 
appropriated direct from the United States Department of Agriculture. 




During the last twenty-five years, additions have been made to the 
original real estate of the college from time to time until, at the present 
day (1917), the total area amounts to about one thousand three 
hundred twenty-five acres. In 1892, the William Bangs house and 
lot were purchased; in 1896, the President Clark property of about 
twenty acres; and, in 1909, the Baker land of about five acres on the 
Plainville road. The additions made in 1910 consisted of the Harlow 
farm of thirty acres; the old creamery lot and buildings, where the 
college apiary now stands ; the Nash land of sixty acres lying south 
of the Durf ee lot ; and the Kellogg farm on the west end of which a 
large part of the athletic field is located, including about eighteen 
acres; while a considerable number of small lots, situated to the 
south of the athletic field, and intended to be used for recreation or 
athletic purposes, were successively acquired between 1910 and 1917. 
The Owen orchard and the portion of the Owen property west of East 
Pleasant Street, having an area of about twenty-seven acres was 
purchased in 1915. Several real estate acquisitions outside of Amherst 
have been made, the first of which was an experimental cranberry 
bog and surrounding uplands with sheds and pumping plant having 
an area of about fifteen acres and located in the town of Wareham, 
purchased in 1910; also, land for a Market Garden Field Station, 
located in Lexington, including about twelve acres acquired in 
1917. The Legislature of 1916 appropriated thirty thousand dollars 
for the purchase of the Mount Toby tract in Sunderland and Leverett, 
which contains seven hundred and fifty-five acres, and is the largest 
tract of land acquired by the college. In spite of the increase in area, 
the development of the work of the institution has required the use 
of additional land, and several tracts have been rented. An orchard 
of about seven acres, situated in the town of Amherst on the Bay 
Road, was rented in 1907; about eighteen acres known as the Tux- 



bury land, adjoining the college estate on the north, were also rented 
for orchard experiments in 1912; and about three acres in the town 
of Concord were rented in 1906 for experiments in connection with 
asparagus growing; while the Tillson farm on East Pleasant Street, 
containing seventy acres, was rented in 1915 with option of purchase.